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  • Tyva Kyzy Chant de gorge au féminin | Tran Quang Hai website
    les modèles du khoomei du sygyt et du kargyraa aux personnes de Tuvan qui ont écouté et les ont acceptées franchement On l a également montré que les femelles peuvent exécuter cet art sans mal à elles mêmes ou compliquant la naissance des enfants Un de ces derniers bravent et les femmes douées est Choldak Kara Oyun qui est resté une légende vivante Elle est la mère du chanteur célèbre de gorge Soruktu Kyrgys des années 1900 tôt qui a été adopté par une autre famille Choldak Kara Oyun était l épouse d un forgeron et d une mère de ses enfants Elle a chanté le khoomei durant toute sa vie tout en la trayant des vaches chantant la berceuse à ses enfants et parfois tandis qu elle buvait l araga de Tuvan Kara Kys Namzatovna Munzuk une actrice célèbre de Tuvan s est rappelé cette femme qui était un grand mère o f son mari En quelques ces périodes une femme de Tuvan a eu beaucoup de choses à faire Elle a dû maintenir sa maison propre et ranger élever beaucoup d enfants faire des vêtements et des chaussures à partir de la peau de petits bétail à cornes alimenter sa famille blé d augmenter et avoine et s occuper de ses bétail Il était très difficile de trouver l heure libre pour le khoomei de chant et jeu des instruments musicaux mais maintenant les femmes peuvent faire n importe quoi tant que il n apporte pas le mal à d autres Des périodes antiques de présenter l exécution du khoomei a donné aux gens un sentiment de wheather calme et bon d énergie qu il a été exécuté par des femmes ou des hommes Dans l ère soviétique qu il était rare pour que les femmes exécutent sur l étape une exception était pendant des festivals républicains Valentina Chuldum de Mongun Taiga 1960 automne 2002 mort à âge 42 a surmonté un chemin si difficile Elle a voyagé musicalement aux pays européens au début des années 90 et avec ceci a ouvert un chemin pour d autres jeunes musiciens féminins Avec le début des colloques internationaux de Khoomei les femmes pourraient finalement chanter publiquement Le groupe Tyva kyzy des filles de Tuva a été établi en 1998 L idée de créer un ensemble femelle a été également éditée dans l article du magazine Khoomei 1995 par Khunashtaar ool Oorzhak Ne sachant pas ceci alors Choduraa Tumat ainsi que Damyran Ailanmaa avait fixé l objectif d établir un groupe féminin avec des interprètes de khoomei Ils ont rassemblé le tout le groupe de femmes se composant de Valentina Chuldum de Shonchalai Oorzhak de Tatiana Saaya d Ailanmaa Damyran de Choduraa Tumat d Azimaa Kuzhuget et d Ailan Ondar Ils ont appelé le groupe Tyva Kyzy car Khunashtaar ool Oorzhak avait souhaité et pendant que Shonchalai Oorzhak suggérait En juillet 1998 Tyva Kyzy exécuté en tant que groupe au colloque international de Khoomei dans Kyzyl après quoi personnes a indiqué

    Original URL path: http://www.tranquanghai.info/p366-tyva-kyzy-chant-de-gorge-au-feminin.html (2016-05-01)
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  • LES VOIX DIPHONIQUES, Ensemble vocal francais | Tran Quang Hai website
    Cette pratique vocale a commencé à susciter de l intérêt chez les musiciens occidentaux depuis la fin des années 60 avec K Stockhausen Stimmung David Hykes Tran Quang Haï C est en 1995 que naît l ensemble vocal Les Voix Diphoniques réunissant des musiciens enthousiasmés par cette technique de chant peu commune De formation classique les membres du groupe puisent leur inspiration à la fois dans l origine du chant diphonique d Asie Centrale dans le chant grégorien utilisation des modes et de la résonance dans les musiques à bourdon en général chant byzantin musiques traditionnelles et dans des techniques plus contemporaines L ensemble vocal Les Voix Diphoniques est composé de 5 musiciens Cyril Bonnier voix clarinette en roseau Pierre Corbi voix percussions Sylvain Fargeix voix cornet à bouquin Christian Le Mounier voix guimbarde et Denis Vautrin voix Cliquez sur les visages des musiciens pour ouvrir leur biographie Ensemble vocal Ensemble vocal Galerie photos Galerie photos Diaporama Diaporama Revue de presse Revue de presse Actualité Actualité Concerts passés Concerts passés Fiche technique Fiche technique Le chant diphonique Les musiciens La musique Les concerts Plan de site Site officielle de l Ensemble Les Voix Diphoniques de France http www lesvoixdiphoniques com FR chant diph htm La musique Album Humandeya Date de création 1998 Le 1 er disque des Voix Diphoniques a été réalisé grâce au Prix des Etats de Bourgogne soutien à la création Sélectionnez un fond sonoreBourdon DiphonieSygytClusters DissonancesDans les plaines de MongolieChamaecyparisHumandeya Bourdon Diphonie Cette pièce est représentative de l évolution du travail musical ainsi que des influences du groupe La référence à la tradition se perçoit dans la première partie où les quatre chanteurs s échangent des mélodies d harmoniques sur un bourdon fixe Quant à l héritage classique on le retrouve dans la solide carrure rythmique les procédés d imitation les harmonies tonales l utilisation du mode mineur Sygyt Trio vocal cette pièce repose essentiellement sur le cheminement austère d un seul thème Celui ci perçu à travers les harmoniques d une voie apparaît et réapparaît servi par différentes couleurs sonores Clusters Dissonances De même que l enfant éprouve parfois une délicieuse sensation à se faire peur notre écoute peut prendre plaisir à une douce agression sonore une dissonance Les voix se meuvent dans l espace réverbérant jouant avec les rencontres entre les sons fondamentaux et les harmoniques quelquefois très proches Une réceptivité de tous les instants est nécessaire pour se pénétrer de ces différents niveaux d écoute Au début une seule voix déroule lentement ses mélodies d harmoniques avant qu une deuxième source sonore s ajoute créant une dissonance Puis les deux voix se rejoignent consonantes préparant bientôt une nouvelle rencontre Dans les plaines de Mongolie En hommage à la tradition un arrangement de trois mélodies mongoles Elles s articulent ici en une composition en trois mouvements Les voix en octave imitent un instrument du folklore mongol la vielle à tête de cheval morin khuur Chamaecyparis Quatre voix enrichies par la résonance des lames d un

    Original URL path: http://www.tranquanghai.info/p335-les-voix-diphoniques%2C-ensemble-vocal-francais.html (2016-05-01)
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  • David HYKES : Fondation Présence Harmonique, janvier 2007 | Tran Quang Hai website
    nous apporte véritablement la musique des sphères DZONGSAR KHYENTSE RINPOCHE La musique de David Hykes vous enchante elle vous transporte Elle vous amène comme si totalement ailleurs dans un autre monde comme allez au Sahara Elle vous transporte au Temps Ancien Pendant que je cherchais la musique pour mon film Voyageurs et Magiciens j en écoutais tellement Mais j ai toujours retourné à celle de David Du moment que je l ai entendu il n y avait plus de doute Les 11 albums du Chant Harmonique authentique qui pratique David Hykes et Le Choeur Harmonique dont À l écoute des vents solaires édité chez Radio France Signature et vendu à plus de 300 000 copies sont maintenant disponible en France ici Voici un extrait du tout nouvel album MONDES HARMONIQUES Cette démarche globale à la fois musicale contemplative et apaisante ouverte à tous trace comme une véritable piste du chant la naissance de l harmonie depuis le Début aussi bien dans l univers que dans la musique au coeur de la conscience humaine Son bût c est de nous aider à retrouver la vraie harmonie au coeur de l univers et de nous mêmes et de nous donner les moyens pour nous y accorder profondément dans nos vies dans nos pratiques spirituelles et dans ce monde Nous découvrons aussi un univers musical étonnant et radieux qui résonne d une façon magnifique et naturelle en chacun d entre nous et qui est souvent splendide et envoûtant en groupe C est comme avoir des oreilles téléscopes pour se rapprocher au coeur cosmique de l harmonie au sein d une galaxie qui s appelle soi même http www harmonicworld com HTML fhome html MUSIQUE VIETNAMIENNE Musique traditionelle Musique nouvelle Biographie des musiciens Artistes décédés Chercheurs vietnamiens Musique tribale Biographie des chanteurs CA TRU

    Original URL path: http://www.tranquanghai.info/p246-david-hykes-%3A-fondation-presence-harmonique%2C-janvier-2007.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Okna Tsahan ZAM, chanteur kalmouk, diphonie | Tran Quang Hai website
    est le fruit de ma rencontre avec Okna Tsahan Zam chanteur traditionnel mongolo kalmouk La musique mongole n ayant curieusement jamais profité de la vague world notre passion commune et complémentaire pour la musique et la culture mongole nous a naturellement poussés à souhaiter faire découvrir et partager cet univers fascinant Quel meilleur médium que la voix d Okna Tsahan Zam pour y parvenir Shaman voices A journey in the steppe est constitué par la succession de plusieurs séquences musicales mises en scène de manière très cinématographique rendant compte de nos visions de l univers de la steppe Des chansons très mélodiques où l acoustique domine soutenues par des apports électroniques côtoient des chansons beaucoup plus roots voix et dombra Il était indispensable de mettre aussi en valeur le chant diphonique trois titres lui sont entièrement consacrés et donnent un aperçu de l art de Okna Tsahan Zam en solo Les sons de la steppe musique naturelle parfois accompagnée par l écho lointain d un musicien parcourent l ensemble de l album sollicitent l imaginaire et dressent le décor L album est l aboutissement de plusieurs années de travail en commun pour faire un disque à la fois agréable à écouter pour les néophytes et respectueux de la tradition tout en la faisant évoluer Cet album participe à la définition de la World fusion de la deuxième génération qui réconcilie racines et technologie La puissance et la gravité de sa voix n empêchent pas Okna Tsahan Zam d être fan de Pink Floyd et des musiques planantes Il souhaitait comme moi même associer avec le plus de justesse possible instruments traditionnels et high tech avec pour seul critère la volonté de communiquer l émotion au mieux Nous avons puisé dans tous les sons aujourd hui disponibles du bip bip du satellite au galop du cheval On en a gardé ce qui nous semblait le plus approprié que ce soit roots ou high tech pour ce voyage entre ciel et steppe où l épique rejoint l incantatoire Nous avons pu vérifier que l album Shaman voices répond à la demande de tous ceux qui connaissent Okna Tsahan Zam et qui sont à la fois impressionnés par sa technique par la profondeur de sa voix et par le pouvoir évocateur de son univers A ceux qui écoutent cette musique pour la première fois il laisse une très forte impression et les touche au plus profond D un point de vue plus technique cet album est construit autour de la voix et est à dominante acoustique et organique Pas de loops de batterie trop datées world 90 s mais un son très actuel où la présence discrète de l électronique s intègre dans un paysage sonore dominé par la voix les percussions du monde et la dombra de Okna Tsahan Zam Les éléments électroniques viennent naturellement renforcer le côté transe et ambiant inhérent à la musique chamanique de Okna Tsaham Zan Guitares dobro contrebasse digeridoo guimbarde se fondent aussi dans son univers et

    Original URL path: http://www.tranquanghai.info/p235-okna-tsahan-zam%2C-chanteur-kalmouk%2C-diphonie.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Roberto LANERI, biography | Tran Quang Hai website
    UCSD In 73 founds PRIMA MATERIA see VOICE OVERTONE SINGING a vocal improvisation group which uses vocal techniques from Central Asia and Tibet in long sessions of great fascination and intensity The group s debut takes place at the Autunno Musicale Como and for 7 years participates at prestigious festivals and events all over Europe with great public and critical success At the same time starts lecturing writing articles and giving workshops on overtone singing Since then appears in solo recitals and a variety of musical situations most often playing his own music Appearances in various national TV television among which Alla ricerca dell Arca and Maurizio Costanzo Show 1993 initiator and music director of the project I POTERI DEL SUONO Volterra Teatro festival A small but exquisite festival with lectures and performances by Peter Michael Hamel Jacques Dudon Jean During Tran Quang Hai Walter Branchi Stefano Scodanibbio Manfred Kage Christian Bollmann Michael Reimann and Roberto Laneri himself who between puns and besides giving a magnificent concert for voice and tape every morning has held a widely attended workshop on overtone singing At last Roberto Laneri s concert a high point of the Volterra days Deep Listenings no 2 Fall 1993 1994 ORIGINI Orvieto Palazzo del Popolo In the end Roberto Laneri in top form 2 compositions for solo voice to show how far this great artist has reached Deep Listenings no 2 Fall 1993 1st Prize Winner composition competition Quattro passi nel delirio Rumori Mediterranei Festival Roccella Jonica 1995 97 initiator and artistic director of I POTERI DEL SUONO a festival realized in Orvieto with EC s contribution Other interesting activities such as I POTERI DEL SUONO an unusual festival in today s scene centered both around cultural ethnic musical multiplicity and vocal usages and research Oltre il Silenzio December 1995 In 1999 founds another vocal group currently active IN FORMA DI CRISTALLI 2002 writes the music David Riondino s recital La signorina Felicita premiere 03 13 02 Teatro degli Illuminati Città di Castello and is elected creative member of the Budapest Club the organization for planetary consciousness founded by Ervin Laszlo Attends the workshop in traditional didjeridoo techniques led by Djalu Gurruwivi at Eisembachcollaborates with visual artist Massimo Luccioli in the realization of the multimedia work Armonie elaborazioni sonore nel segno premiere Rome Museo d arte contemporanea università La Sapienza 23 11 2002 2003 collaborates with Peter Pannke in the soundtrack of Itinerarium Kircherianum a multimedia work dedicated to Athanasius Kircher prizewinner at the WDR Köln international competion premiere 05 17 03 Detmold Kite Museum 6 01 03 Theo Otto Theater Remscheid German premiere of Clinamen a contemporary dance work with the Moto Armonico company Betty Lo Sciuto director2004 2 14 15 2 concerts at the Tirana Congress Palace premiering Ja ku jam Ardit Gjebrea s latest CD5 23 04 Maestri by Beppe Sebaste an hour long interview on Italian national Radio7 18 04 Anagni cloister of the Cathedral Festival of Medieval and Renaissance Theater concert with the

    Original URL path: http://www.tranquanghai.info/p517-roberto-laneri%2C-biography.html (2016-05-01)
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  • Carole PEGG : Mongolian Conceptualizations of Overtone Singing (Xöömii) | Tran Quang Hai website
    formed by two lakes Xar Nuur and Dargin Nuur The two largest lakes Xar Us Nuur and Xar Nuur are connected in the north by a much smaller lake Dalai Nuur and by a river called Chono Xaraix To the south lies semi desert Birds It is claimed that several birds produce xöömii type sounds For instance the usny buxI bittern Note19 keeps its head under water in the lake and produces a sound which can be heard a saaxalt note20 away Sengedorj IN The crane togoruu said to live for 3 000 years also has a distinctive call which when heard is considered a portent of long life Bolorma IN The noise produced by the wings of the snow cock xoilog widespread in Mount Jargalant as well as on the lakes is said to be very like the sound xöömii Xöömii is sometimes referred to as the voice s echo or bird s echo Mountains The mountains stand alone in the steppe seperated from the main Altai massif The people of Chandman sum stress that the sounds heard in the mountains have a special quality and those who live on Mount Jargalant often discuss the variety of sounds which they hear For example they say that sounds are different in the morning from the evening because of a difference in the flow of air agaaryn ursgal that common sounds such as rain sound quite different in the mountains and that there is a particular kind of echo which enables a noise to be heard four or five am note21 away Tserendavaa INa Mount Jargalant also has a special power It is said to be able to hold the very strong winds which come from the west before releasing them into the steppe below Sometimes the wind is held for four to five hours Sengedorj sometimes 24 hours Tserendavaa INc and sometimes for as long as three days During this time the mountain drones or makes a hollow sound dungenex The people in the steppe below are thus warned of the impending wind and able to make preparations to meet it Old people credit the same power to the lake as well They say that Mount Jargalant and Lake Xar Us Nuur attract and digest the sound of the wind tataj sleingeex Batchuluian IN a horse herder who lives on the steppe between the mountains and the lake talked of a musical communication which is set up between the two His father a very good xöömiich born 100 years ago told him Our mountain and lakes speak to each other in musical language and that is why people living between do the same His father added that the music had a beneficial effect which explained why the horses there are bigger the cattle very good and so on Rivers In addition the mountains contain many rivers and waterfalls which produce different combinations of sounds according to the types of stones over which they run On the peak of Mount Jargalant is a small river itself an unusual phenomenon which is said to produce good sounds Once again though the explanation in terms of nature is elaborated to include the magical A particular river is cited as the origin of xöömii the River Eev and this has magical properties For the peoples of western Mongolia the River Eev has become a symbol of the old time before the Oirad western Mongols settled east of the Altai mountains Identification of its exact location varies Note 22 Although everyone knew of it I never met anyone who had personally seen this river In old times Urianixai people used to say that they wanted to drink the water of the River Eev before they died For all of the yastan in western Mongolia it remains a powerful symbol Opinions differ about whether it was a river or a stream but all agree that it made particularly unusual sounds as it trickled or ran over stones Chuluun used to perform a melody on his morin xuur note23 Called The River Eev note 24 or The flow of the River Eev producing xöömii at the same time He said that this melody represented the sound of the River Eev which was connected with the origin of xöömii and with the playing of the tsuur note25 Xöömii said Chuluun is an interpretation of the sounds of the River Eev in the mind of the xöömiich The sounds of this river also had a magical effect They lured animals to the water to drink but then bewitched them causing them to fall in Margad IN Tserendavaa INb They also had the power to entrance people For example the tale was told of a young girl who went to the river to get water once she heard the melody of the river she remained there all day forgetting her mission Tseveen IN Samdan IN maintained that people born by the River Eev became very good singers and very beautiful people 2 Historical and legendary time There is no firm evidence to suggest a date for the origin of xöömii in Mongolia Historical documents refer to musicians 300 strong court orchestras and singers but xöömii is never mentioned One of the earliest apparent references to overtone singing appears in Serruys translation of a sixteenth century Chinese document containing a description of songs which have beaucoup de sons de la gorge et des levres that is many sounds from the throat and the lips 1945 153 Another clue perhaps more definite occurs in a sixteenth century French poem which seems to describe overtone singing Anvers 1520 cited in Leothaud 1989 J ay veu comme il me semble Ung fort homme d honneur Luy seul chanter ensemble Et dessus et teneur I saw it seems to me A strong man of honour Singing together with himself Both above and below Note26 And three centuries later in a paper given in 1840 to the French Academy of Sciences Garcia referred to the solo two part singing of the Bashkirs OP Cit This lack of documentation is possibly because the elevation of overtone singing and of Mongolian traditional music generally into an art form postdates the Communist Revolution of 1921 when the music of the people became imbued with special value and found support from people s power Tserendavaa INb Cultural centres were included in the small group of Administrative buildings placed at the centre of each sum and local traditional music performers were enlisted to give concerts The theatres built in each aimag centre drew their artists from those who performed at the cultural centres For the people of Chandman the origin of xöömii lies in a legendary time when Bazarsad used to perform at nair celebrations The xarxiraa xöömiich Margad now 50 years old recalled that when he was a boy the old people used to talk of Bazarsad of Chandman sum who lived in ancient times They described him as being very tall and strong chadaltai and a very good wrestler When horseman Dashdondob was five years old in 1923 he heard that Bazarsad was the first to perform xöömii in Chandman IN It was said that he performed türlegt or xosmoljin xöömii a combination of long song with different xöömii techniques and that when he performed this kind of xöömii well the spirits of the land and waters came to listen to him Tserendavaa INc Although no one has actually met or heard Bazarsad it is affirmed that none will match his skill By contrast people did know Chimiddorj who performed three voiced xöömii and Togon Chulum the man who is credited with beginning a new stage in xöömii development 3 Development of xöömii as a cultural art form In pre revolutionary Mongolia the performance of xöömii was a secular tradition which had been passed down from generation to generation but was in decline Sengedorj IN Old people in Chandman sum attributed this to the predominance of Buddhism saying that the disapproval of the lamas caused an interruption in xöömii development The Bayad in Uvs aimag still consider it to have declined since at present only two or three young people can perform it Jamiyan IN The new development in the history of xöömii came from Chandman sum in Xovd aimag through individual xöömiich 1 Chandman Xöömiich Togon Chuluun was a XaIxa Mongol born in the 1890s who in addition to performing xöömii whistled played the tsuur and excelled on the morin xuur Before the Revolution he often used his skills when travelling with a camel train to secure himself food and lodgings in ger along the route There is some disagreement about whether Chuluun learned overtone singing from the declining tradition in Chandman sum and later improved his performance whilst in military service in the West Border Guards or whether he learned the skill whilst in the Guards In any event it was Chuluun who in 1930 first demonstrated xöömii as a folk art Tsambaa IN He had many pupils including the now well known xöömiich Tserendavaa These pupils developed xöömiii into a national art form capable of winning many medals in folk competitions Tsedee is the man accredited with the introduction of xöömii to the rest of the country He lived on the lakeside and learned xöömiii from Chuluun In 195 Tsedee joined Xovd Theatre becoming the first professional xöömii perforner in Mongolia In 1954 Xovd Aimag Musical Drama Theatre Xovd Aimagiin Kogjimt Dramyn Teatr visited the capital Ulaanbaatar to present a dekaden note27 or ten day concert and Tsedee became the first person to perform xöömiii there Xöömii was subsequently officially recognised as a professional art After Tsedee Sundui joined Xovd Theatre Sundui is considered to be the founder of what has been termed the modern classical form of xöömii Tserendavaa INb He is said to be unique among xöömii performers in that he can produce half tones rather than the usual full tones Note28 He can perform classical European melodies by composers such as Tchaikovsky and Bizet Batzengel 1980 52 and is able to make vocal leaps over wide intervals Sengedorj IN He has a high technical level of xöömii performance can produce a scale using four vowels gammalax dorvon egshig Tserendavaa INC note29 and is thought to be a possible match for the legendary Bazarsad Sundui s main attributes are said to be xevliin bagtaamj sailai having good storage capacity in the stomach duuny xooloi saitai having good throat sounds and mash ix tamirtai having great physical strength note 30 Sundui later joined the State Folk Song and Dance Ensemble Ulsyn Ardyn Duu Bujgiin Chuulga in Ulaanbaatar and has now retired He has many pupils among them Sengedorj who is now with the Xoyd theatre and Tserendavaa Najid Sengedorj has no formal musical education but joined Xovd theatre in 1975 He learned xöömii in Chandman at about age five performed xöömii in the tenth Festival of Young People and Students and has since travelled widely in Eastern Europe Ganbold currently with the Ulaanbaatar Ensemble is also from Chandman sum He is able to perform a scale gammalax on more vowels than Sundui Tserendavaa INc Since he is still a young man it is thought that he will become very good Tserendavaa is a truck driver and a skilled musician He performs many types of song including western Mongolian long songs urtyn duu and praise songs magtaal and plays the horse head fiddle morin xuur and two stringed plucked lute tovshuur Together with Badraa he has identified seven types of xöömii see below teaches xöömii in the school in Chandman sum and has now begun to teach foreigners in Ulaanbaatar 2 Training methods and transmission Performers and teachers of xöömii in the West are largely unaware of the physical problems which its performance can precipitate stressing only its potential beneficial effects I was specifically requested by Mongol performers to alert practitioners to the dangers and to attempt to enlist scientific aid in understanding and counteracting the problems In Mongolia the performance of xöömii is surrounded by rules and regulations Learning and performance Emic theories stress that the training period for the performance of xöömii should be lengthy preferably beginning in childhood Tserendavaa INb Sengedorj IN Childhood should be a period of learning with performance reserved for one s maturity For instance Tserendavaa began learning at age nine but did not perform until age 25 Traditionally learning was by example and imitation Tserendavaa recalled his first childhood experience of xöömii which was to have an enduring effect The arrival of the xöömiich at his home had left a strong impression in his mind One evening a white haired bearded old man rode up on a greyish horse which shone like silver buural looking for two lost horses The man later discovered to be the xöömiich Chulutun spent three nights in the family ger During that time Tserendavaa listened to his xöömii and learned from him to play the horse head fiddle bought for Tserendavaa by his father Tserendavaa became a xöömiich to repay his debt to this man Since 1981 Tserendavaa has taught xöömii to children in Chandman secondary school His method is to define which type of xöömii the pupil is naturally attempting then to give individual advice according to this chosen type and the stage the child has reached His main teaching method is demonstration Tserendavaa pointed out that the difficulty in working with children is that they drift between different types He emphasized the need to learn the general rules of performance and then choose the specific kind Aids are sometimes used to acquire a good xöömii voice For instance a cup is held to the mouth to provide an echo ayagaar devex lit to fan by means of a cup or a pupil is made to xöömiilox against the wind salkiny ogsuur xöömiilox Once a good xöömii voice is acquired these devices are no longer necessary Traditionally xöömii has been performed only by men but Tserendavaa has begun to teach women The few women in Mongolia who can xöömiilox have all been taught by him Physical problems Can you wrestle Chuluun stressed that xöömii is a difficult art demanding self control endurance and great strength As an illustration of the strength needed Tserendavaa described how the legendary Bazarsad s hair used to stand on end when he performed He compared the strength needed with that required for wrestling pointing out that both Bazarsad and Sundui the two most renowned xöömiich were also famous wrestlers The ideal age for wrestling is 25 the peak of male human strength Unless the performer has this strength and the other qualities outlined by Chuluun xöömii performance is believed to be harmful for the body Tserendavaa stressed that physical problems associated with xöömii performance needs to be the object of intense scientific research His own experiences illustrate some of the problems which may occur As a child he injured his larynx tovonx batsrax while learning and couldn t swallow for some time He has also often broken blood vessels He advised eating a good meal before performance In 1982 Tserendavaa took part in a concert in Ulaaribaatar for the Twelfth Trade Union Congress and had not eaten He felt hungry during the concert and when he was producing high overtones he lost consciousness He needed an operation for broken blood vessels near his eyes and was advised to give up xöömii but he says that he is unable to do so He is now 35 and has been performing for ten years Over the last two years he has been performing more often and has begun to have more problems Because of the strength and power demanded by its performance xöömii becomes more difficult with age After age 40 the technique may survive but there is a loss of the necessary power Tserendavaa stresses that achieving a true xöömiii voice requires overcoming many bad physical effects His advice is that men should not perform it in advanced years Davaajav a tseejiin xondiin chest cavity xöömiich noted that although xöömii performers are generally also good singers it becomes increasingly difficult to sing well because of physical changes which occur in the throat From his own experience he supports the view that the performance of xöömii affects the body and he agrees that a person cannot perform xöömii over in extended period of years Amateur xöömii performers are he said able to perform for longer because of the infrequency of performance Women The performance of xöömii by women is a recent phenomenon Those who do perform are young and are pupils of Tserendavaa Xöömii is considered particularly bad for women s health so there are strict rules associated with its performance Badraa IN Tserendavaa INc Women should not begin to learn before the age of 17 or 18 and should only be active Xöömiich between the ages of 20 and 24 They may continue to perform until age 30 if they are not married Once married however they should not continue and after childbirth they are believed to be unable to perform well 4 Mongolian classification of xöömii A Uyangiin xöömii melodic or lyrical xöömii Overtone singing styles vary in Mongolia according to historical period ethnicity and the ability of the individual performer For example XaIxa xöömii styles differ from Kazak and Tuvan styles Different yastan have their own ways of describing the same types of xöömii For instance the xelnii ug style referred to by the Bayad xöömiich Mangiljav as being the most popular in Tes sum when he was a child in the late 1940 s and early 1950 s is performed with the xöömii situated at the back of the tongue or in the throat IN and is called by the XaIxa bagalzuuryn xooloin xöömii throat xöömii Some yastan however have types of Xöömii peculiaronly to their group Tseveen a 40 yearold Dörvöd from Olgii sum demonstrated two such styles the Urianxai style of xöömii known as

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