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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    been wounded or killed by sharks and even small sand sharks have attacked swimmers near beaches Consequently many people are afraid of sharks Types of Sharks It is amazing how many varieties of sharks there are They may be short fat skinny or flat There are gray sharks blue sharks brown sharks and spotted sharks Some have strange heads some have strange tails and some have strange habits A few don t even look like sharks Here are some of the different types of sharks Tiger Shark this stripe backed man eater grows to 16 feet or more in length Great White Shark this aggressive shark which may grow to be 35 feet long is the world s largest predatory shark weighing between 6 000 7 000 pounds Whale Shark the largest fish in the world growing to be as long as 60 feet but it eats only small fish and animal plankton Dwarf Pacific Shark the smallest shark known to science only 4 inches long Hammerhead Shark has a T shaped head with an eye on each end Basking Shark floats or basks on the surface of the sea to warm itself in the sun Greenland Shark is found in glacier cold waters of the north Spiny Dogfish this shark a common pest of fishermen grows to 4 feet Nurse Shark this lazy scavenger usually has 20 30 pups at a time each about one foot long Thresher Shark has an unusually long tail up to 10 feet for herding and hitting prey Bull Shark often found swimming up rivers far from the sea Carpet Shark this patterned shark lies on the ocean floor and even has fringe on its head Shark Facts If a shark stops swimming its weight pulls it down Sharks do not have swim bladders which are sacs of air inside the body that help keep fish afloat So sharks must swim constantly or they will sink like a stone Shark teeth are made for grabbing and cutting Sharks don t chew their food They swallow it whole A shark s teeth are constantly being replaced as they are lost or worn out taking as little as 24 hours to grow back in Sharks sometimes store food inside their stomachs and can last for a month or more between meals Sharks have been known to eat anything A shark caught in the Adriatic Sea had three coats a nylon rainjacket and a car s license plate in its stomach When attacking prey a shark s jaws actually move forward out of its mouth while its pointed snout lifts up out of the way enabling the shark to open wide Sharks normally strike their prey by biting off a piece and backing off until it bleeds to death When sharks feed in groups they sometimes go crazy and bite everything in sight including other sharks and even themselves This is called a feeding frenzy Some sharks can bite hard enough to slice through a thick piece

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/sharks.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House - Learning Resources - Homeschool Information - Not Just For Kids - Snow
    about 100 inches Sunrise Mountain in the White Mountains of Arizona has the state s highest average annual snowfall at 243 inches The town name of Snowflake Arizona comes not from snowflakes but from the names of Erastus Snow and William J Flake Mormon leaders who settled the area in the 1800 s Snow is actually frozen water vapor Unlike hail and sleet which are frozen water snow crystals form when water vapor in clouds turns directly into ice without going through a liquid phase These tiny crystals of ice arrange themselves in intricately beautiful patterns that resemble frilly stars or frozen lace Their symmetrical six sided or six pointed shape comes from the hexagonal structure of an ice molecule A snow crystal s complex framework bounces light off countless tiny surfaces like a prism The resulting reflection of all wavelengths of visible light gives snow its white color Solid ice doesn t have any air spaces between the frozen water molecules allowing light to pass straight through and giving it a clear appearance Ice crystals are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature air currents and humidity Different microclimates on each side of an ice crystal produce asymmetrical shapes Perfectly formed crystals do not always survive their fall from clouds which may be more than a mile above the earth Fragile pieces can easily break off as they are buffeted by winds and bump into each other Sometimes when it is snowing lightly with no wind and bitter cold air a multitude of individual twinkling ice crystals will drift down from the clouds At other times when the air temperature is slightly above freezing bunches of ice crystals will cling together to form snowflakes that look like little puffs of cotton Snow consisting of snowflakes that melt slightly when pressed together is the best kind for making snowballs snowmen and other snow sculptures In the coldest weather the ice crystals are frozen so hard that they won t melt and therefore don t pack well Snowflakes have a lot of air space between them as they settle on the ground making a kind of fluffy blanket That s why a pan full of snow will not be full of water when it melts Even though snow is cold a layer of it helps insulate plants and animals from freezing air temperatures For kids snow is fun and exciting People who have to commute to work find it downright inconvenient Ice storms can do a lot of damage and blizzards can be dangerous Nevertheless heavy snow is the only weather extreme so benign that it can be used for recreation e g sledding skiing snow shoeing ice skating and hockey You can t play in tornadoes hurricanes or heat waves Did You Know The biggest snowflake on record measured 15 across and fell on January 28 1887 at Fort Keough Montana In 1971 a giant 8 x 12 snowflake reportedly fell in Siberia Glossary SNOW CRYSTAL An ice crystal

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/snow.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    time around as much equipment as possible was packed into the Spirit including radios antennas radar a robotic arm power tool cameras infrared sensor spectrophotometer microscope onboard computer solar collectors and a heater As the ultimate off road off Earth mobile science lab Spirit s mission is to undertake the most comprehensive search for evidence of liquid water ever attempted on Mars Spirit is now on site in Gusev Crater a possible former lake and its twin rover Opportunity will land in late January at Meridiani Planum where minerals were detected that normally form in the presence of water Some scientists theorize that liquid water was once abundant on Mars s surface but has since vanished When Viking found no evidence of life on Mars in the 1970 s it was such a disappointment that there were no more Mars missions for twenty years afterwards Perhaps this time the questions Was there ever liquid water on the red planet Were conditions ever suitable for life will finally be answered The future of NASA s Mars exploration program itself hangs in the balance Honeywell Fiesta Bowl Aerospace Challenge Hundreds of schoolchildren from around the state recently got to participate in a spacecraft design project In doing so they experienced some of the tension and anticipation that real scientists and engineers feel The Honeywell Fiesta Bowl Aerospace Challenge lasted from September to December culminating with the final competition during the week of the Fiesta Bowl In this case students in grades 5 8 had to design their own space station The Honeywell Fiesta Bowl Aerospace Challenge was developed to enhance the knowledge of space technology as well as promote team building communication problem solving and critical decision making skills while integrating the subjects of math science social studies language and fine arts This was a great opportunity for children who are interested in space like to work numbers enjoy drafting floor plans making models or planning simulated communities Contest teams utilized current knowledge of the International Space Station ISS to design and build a new generation ISS complete with a physical scale model While still under construction the ISS is in operation with its fifth three man crew in residence Once completed in 2006 the ISS is expected to operate for at least ten years supporting a crew of generally six members for 90 days at a time With this in mind contest teams were given the task of redesigning the current ISS to accommodate a crew of 100 for a period of two years The teams had to determine every last detail such as how they would get water dispose of waste and supply food for their crews In addition to structural design docking port gravity air and power supply other topics included shielding communications arts and entertainment recreation medical economics politics culture and international involvement The children even got to design their own mission patch and vote on an appropriate name for their space station One station was called the

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/space101.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    a steady supply of power Electricity is used for climate control lighting food preparation computers communications and other equipment We have decided that the electricity needs of this space station will require nuclear and solar as the main sources of power We have designed it so that our nuclear power plant is safely separated from the inhabited part of the station It can be shut off or even detached in case of an accident We don t think the disposal of nuclear waste will be a problem either The nuclear waste can be easily discarded using Magnetic Rail Guns that use magnetic rails as the propulsion mechanism This allows higher initial velocity than rockets and is cheaper We can shoot a tightly sealed canister of nuclear waste into the sun on a schedule It won t affect the sun at all A main economic reason that justifies this space station endeavor is the collection and distribution of abundant solar energy to supply power for Earth Normally only 40 to 50 of solar energy reaches the earth s surface 22 of solar energy is absorbed in the atmosphere and between 30 to 40 is reflected into space Some sort of system must be designed to fully utilize the sun as energy and beam it down to Earth Large solar collectors can be built to convert sunlight to electricity which can then be beamed to Earth using microwaves and or lasers We expect the sale of solar energy to help pay for the station Shielding Shielding is one of the most important functions on a space station Without shields the station would overheat be destroyed or radiation would penetrate the station and affect all organic matter by increasing cancer risk The two types of shielding are passive and active Passive shields are usually bulk shields that absorb solar radiation and dispose of the radiation An active shield is an exterior body that protects the craft from solar radiation and deflects solar particles by way of magnetic fields plasma shields and electrostatic fields Docking Port The Oasis space station will be in orbit at an altitude of 500 km 310 miles above Earth It will be in Low Earth Orbit but slightly higher than the current ISS which has a mean altitude of 373 km 232 miles This will avoid most of the space debris that is floating around Space shuttles will be an important link to Earth The Oasis space station must have a safe efficient transportation terminal to allow fast and easy access of space shuttles along with their cargo and passengers It seems hard to believe but objects in orbit around Earth are moving at tremendous velocities Positioning a shuttle close to the space station while orbiting the Earth at such a high speed can be pretty tricky Docking systems are simpler when the station is not rotating Here is a way it can be done While the station is rotating around the tubular pole the pole itself is not

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/spaceoasis.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    growing system Rainfall simulations will water the plants while cleansing and freshening the atmosphere Waste Products Human waste can be recycled by using plants along with a waste water purification system to convert the brown water sewer water into pure drinking water This can be done naturally in conjunction with food production In the natural animal plant cycle animals breathe in oxygen from the air and breathe out carbon dioxide as a waste Plants absorb this carbon dioxide from the air and emit oxygen as a waste Thus plants produce food and oxygen for animals while animals produce carbon dioxide for plants as well as wastes which can be used as fertilizer for the plants Dead plants also make good compost and need not be wasted Packaging materials should be reusable biodegradable recyclable or eliminated altogether to reduce waste Plastic metal and glass containers can be reused and recycled Disposable paper plates and cups should be avoided to lower the amount of waste that is thrown away For any remaining trash that cannot be recycled a trash compactor will reduce the volume of the trash About every two to three weeks we will shoot it off into space It will then burn up entering the Earth s atmosphere Medical In the Sick Bay area there will be beds that will measure automatically for vital signs no crewmembers will be needed for this task A room will also be included for Chiropractic care as well as a special room off to the side for any needed operations There will be another room that serves as a dentist office If there is something that the doctor cannot handle there will be a small ship that will be sent down to earth In the medical module there is a mini pharmacy and extra storage for the antibiotics and other supplies The lock for the pharmacy is a key card If the card is stolen the key can be disarmed from the main control room of the station and every day the code on the card changes to make it harder for the person who stole the card Communications Since there will be many crewmembers from different nations most will speak different languages How do you solve this problem Computers with a translator program are in use by the United States military These programs work by using multiple databases each database containing one language Let s say for example an American astronaut who knows English and German meets a French astronaut who knows French and Italian They will not be able to understand one another But with the help of the translators they will These translators will be worn as an earphone so they will not interfere with each other The translators are only oral translators therefore an emergency escape route and plan will have to be in several different languages so all astronauts and crewmembers can read and understand it International Involvement The idea for the international space shuttle began for a U

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/spaceoasis2.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    than its year taking 243 Earth days to rotate but only 224 7 days to orbit the sun Mars A year on Mars is 687 Earth days but its day is almost the same length as an Earth day at 24 hours and 37 minutes Jupiter Jupiter spins so fast that its day is only 10 hours long the length of a Jupiter year is 12 Earth years Saturn Saturn s day is 10 hours and 41 minutes its year is 29 years and 167 25 days Uranus A day on Uranus is 16 7 hours its year is 84 Earth years 3 65 days Neptune Neptune s year is about 165 Earth years in length a day on Neptune is 16 hours 7 minutes Pluto Pluto s day is 6 Earth days 9 hours and 17 minutes it takes 248 Earth years for Pluto to complete one orbit around the Sun What is your day like It s about 24 hours long like everyone else s You have to eat and you have to sleep What do you do with the remaining hours of your day School job sports friends family church movies TV computer games Which things are most important What things do you spend more time on Your answer to these questions can mean either success or failure Of course you can get the necessary things done first and still have time for some leisurely reading a good TV program fun with the family writing a letter surfing the web or calling a friend but only if you plan intelligently and stick to your plan A plan tells you exactly what you are going to do and when and helps you to focus on your top priorities If you are in command of your time you won t waste time trying to decide what to do first and you won t be worried about what you ve forgotten to do Whether you use a Day Planner Palm Pilot pocket calendar daily assignment notebook or a plain piece of paper a written list of things to do is essential Crossing off items as you accomplish them will give you great satisfaction When compiling a to do list jot down all the things you have to do Then decide what to do first what to put off for later and what to get someone else to do Consider whether you do your best work in the morning afternoon or evening Schedule the most difficult activities when you are sharpest Break major projects into more manageable steps If you have a task that s low in priority but will take only a few minutes to complete get it out of the way quickly Then move on to your higher priority tasks while keeping your ultimate goals in mind Challenge yourself to see how many different tasks you can get done in one day Grouping similar tasks will make more efficient use of your time Schedule an ongoing project for a

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/time.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House - Learning Resources - Homeschool Information - Not Just For Kids
    girl s example Did You Know The Israeli army puts lemon juice in their water this makes them drink more The Water Cycle Water moves in a continuous cycle from the atmosphere to the oceans and back into the atmosphere Precipitation in the form of rain hail sleet and snow falls to the earth s surface and runs into lakes rivers and oceans Some water sinks into underground aquifers where it is stored until it is brought to the surface by wells or springs Surface water is heated by the sun and some of it evaporates rising high into the atmosphere as water vapor As the water vapor cools it turns into tiny droplets of water and creates clouds Then the precipitation from the clouds falls back to the earth again This is known as the hydrological cycle or water cycle Nevertheless precipitation as a water source can be undependable and sporadic in certain areas We cannot depend upon precipitation to always occur at just the right place or at just the right time During periods of plentiful water people can become apathetic about using water wisely Then when a drought occurs an awareness of the need to conserve water comes about Arizona residents should always be conscious of the water we use since it is such a precious commodity in the arid Southwest No matter how much water we have available to us at any given time it always makes sense to be frugal about our water usage Especially when you get your water from a well you don t want to deplete the supply and then not have enough when times get dry There are other reasons why people decide to conserve water Some may do so in order to reduce their monthly water bill Sometimes drought and a utility company s implementation of a water conservation plan forces homeowners to change their habits Whatever the motivation is the results are the same All it takes is a little discipline planning and a small investment in water efficient equipment for average consumers to become above average water savers When the well is dry we know the value of water Ben Franklin Indoor Water Saving Tips 1 The single most effective water conservation step that can be taken inside the home is to install low flow showerheads which use up to 70 less water 2 Shower systems are available that allow the water to be turned off while lathering without affecting the temperature 3 Toilet water use can be reduced by up to 70 with the installation of water efficient or air assisted commodes 4 Put a half gallon plastic jug of water in the tank of older toilets and cut water use by 20 5 Installing water efficient aerators on bathroom and kitchen sinks will use 50 less water 6 Remember to adjust the water level on your washing machine to match the size of your laundry load 7 Check for leaks If your water meter is moving

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/water.html (2016-05-02)
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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    Did You Know Jet streams are fast moving currents of air high in the atmosphere When I was a kid and heard about jet streams I mistakenly thought that the contrails of jet planes were affecting the weather By the way contrail is short for condensation trail These are formed when water vapor from the exhaust of jet airplanes condenses into ice crystals at high altitudes The Earth s Eight Major Climate Zones Equatorial warm and wet South America Central America Africa South Pacific Islands Tropical dry and rainy seasons Africa South America Oceanic four seasons winter spring summer fall North America Greenland British Isles Desert hardly any rain Africa Arabia Australia Monsoon six months of heavy rain Asia Continental freezing winter hot summer brief spring and fall Europe North America Mediterranean mild winter warm summer mild spring and fall Italy Spain Greece Polar freezing winter and cold summer Arctic Antarctica Climate Extremes Northern Chile most likely the driest place on earth has spots where there has been no recorded rain in over 400 years Mt Waialeale on the island of Kauai Hawaii is the wettest place on earth where it rains 250 days a year averaging 460 inches 38 feet of rain each year The hottest climate is tropical East Africa where the average annual temperature is 94 degrees F The coldest climate is Antarctica where the South Pole s average temperature is 70 degrees below zero Climate and Man Climate effects the way people live eat dress work and how healthy they are Hot climates make it difficult for people to work hard Cold climates make it hard for people to think well although they will have plenty of energy for hard work Too much dampness or too much dryness or too much heat or cold are bad for health A temperate climate seems to be best Sailors formers hunters and fishermen have always studied the weather because their work depends on it They learned to predict changes by watching clouds observing plants and animals and noting body aches and pains To further understand the weather scientists invented instruments to measure temperature thermometer pressure barometer humidity hygrometer sunshine heliograph and wind speed anemometer Atmospheric science is the branch of physics concerned with studying the air and understanding the processes taking place in the atmosphere Meteorologists are scientists who study the weather Ben Franklin was America s first meteorologist Climatologists study weather patterns over the years Rapid advances in the knowledge of atmospheric science have been made since the 1940 s due in part to increased understanding of the physical processes expanded observing networks and development of instruments to measure the atmosphere Today meteorologists and climatologists use many different high tech instruments In fact the effort to predict weather was one of the initial reasons for developing computers and satellites Satellites send back pictures of clouds and record infrared radiation to determine temperature and humidity Weather satellites have been especially successful at detecting and following the movement of hurricanes

    Original URL path: http://knowledgehouse.info/njfk/weather.html (2016-05-02)
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