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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    dates from the 1820s when Romantic poets wore their collars open in defiance of conventional fashion Beau Brummel George Bryan Beau Brummel 1778 1840 was the most famous of the dashing young men in the Regency era He was not of aristocratic birth but was drawn to the upper class lifestyle Brummel became acquainted with aristocratic gentlemen who were impressed with his wit and dress Brummel was a fashion trend setter It was he who first wore black cloth pantaloons or trousers in evening dress instead of satin knee breeches He also introduced an evening coat of dark blue cloth with white waistcoat Brummel gave great attention to neckwear especially how to tie them He knew probably hundreds of ways to tie his neckcloth Brummel eventually depleted his funds due to his lavish lifestyle and reckless gambling and lost his high placed friends He insulted the Prince Regent with his biting wit and was forced to leave England for France in 1816 Brummel lost his interest in clothes and became slovenly despite the fact that he had once been so meticulous about personal appearance Brummel died a pauper in 1840 Education It was not compulsory either legally or socially for children to attend school in Regency England They could easily be educated at home Upper class children were taught by a governess or tutor For boys boarding schools and universities such as Eton Oxford or Cambridge were the staging grounds where they made friends and developed connections that would aid them later in life Their curriculum was heavily weighted towards the classics the languages and literature of Ancient Greece and Rome They also studied mathematics law philosophy and modern history There were few boarding schools for girls so a girl s education was taken almost entirely at home Ladies did not attend University and their studies were very different They learned French drawing dancing music and the use of globes They were also taught practical skills such as sewing embroidery and accounts The following quote is from Chapter 29 of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen No governess How was that possible Five daughters brought up at home without a governess I never heard of such a thing Your mother must have been quite a slave to your education Elizabeth could hardly help smiling as she assured her that had not been the case Then who taught you who attended to you Without a governess you must have been neglected Compared with some families I believe we were but such of us as wished to learn never wanted the means We were always encouraged to read and had all the masters that were necessary Books If you have an interest in Regency history and fashion English society or Jane Austen novels be sure to check these out The Writer s Guide to Everyday Life in Regency and Victorian England From 1811 1901 by Kristine Hughes While it is not an authoritative reference this book is good for browsing It has

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  • Knowledge House - Learning Resources - Homeschool Information - Not Just For Kids
    until 1948 long enough to see airplanes used in both World Wars After World War I the surplus war planes were disposed of at very low prices Many former war pilots bought these planes for exhibition purposes Daredevil pilots called barnstormers traveled all over the country performing stunts at county fairs Some of the more brave members of their audience would pay for a private ride after the show The first airmail service was established between New York and Washington D C in 1918 Coast to coast airmail service was offered starting in 1924 In the 1930 s air transportation companies were formed to take passengers on short flights and regular passenger service was established Also in the 1930 s the first practical helicopter was developed More rapid advancements took place in the aviation industry after World War II beginning with the first jet propelled airplanes Commercial airlines were using jet planes by the late 1950 s Like man s dreams the aviation industry went beyond the atmosphere into space Space planes are being developed to fly as airplanes in the air and as spacecraft in space Aircraft and its related industries are some of the major employers in America Thousands of companies are involved in aviation which has been expanded to include aerospace Ranging from the man who rents his small airplane for crop dusting to the giant Boeing company and including many other companies that make parts for airplanes and spacecraft they employ millions of people across the nation The site of the Wright brothers first flight at Kitty Hawk North Carolina is now preserved as the Wright Brothers National Monument The Wright brothers had big dreams but the decisions leading up to their amazing accomplishment were based on sound research and careful planning which combined with imagination and dedication is what helped to make their dreams a reality For more information about the Wright brothers and flight visit www wright brothers org SEE ALSO www knowledgehouse info bio wrightbros html Wright Brothers biography Daedelus and Icarus Daedelus and Icarus is a Greek myth Daedelus was a master craftsman from Athens who was able to design and build nearly anything He created many objects that figure prominently in various myths including the famous labyrinth of the Minotaur a monstrous half man half bull For years King Minos demanded a tribute of youths from Athens to feed the creature Eventually the hero Theseus came to Crete to slay the Minotaur King Minos was angry with Daedelus after Theseus was not only able to slay the Minotaur but escape from the labyrinth So he imprisoned Daedelus and his son Icarus in a prison tower They escaped but Daedalus decided that he and his son Icarus had better leave Crete to get away from King Minos However Minos controlled the sea around Crete so Daedalus realized that the only way out was by air Daedelus crafted some wings of wax twine and the feathers of sea birds Daedelus and Icarus took

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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    of the battle as well as the purpose of the war and other related subjects Lincoln s remarks delivered at noon on November 19 1863 just four months after the battle are a powerful summation of Lincoln s war aims as well as a moving tribute to those who died While Lincoln s speech lasted only two minutes Everett is said to have remarked that the President said more than he had been able to say in his two hours The Gettysburg Address is one of the great speeches that everyone should read Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure We are met on a great battle field of that war We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate we can not consecrate we cannot hallow this ground The brave men living and dead who have struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract The world will little note nor long remember what we say here but it can never forget what they did here It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth Did You Know An Arizona State Park is the site of the Westernmost Battle of The Civil War and the largest Civil War miltary re enactment in the Southwest takes place there every year The Civil War battle took place near Picacho Peak on April 15 1862 when an advance detachment of Union forces from California attacked a Confederate scouting party The battle lasted for 1 1 2 hours and three Union soldiers were killed Every March The Civil War in the Southwest comes alive again as over two hundred re enactors converge on Picacho Peak on foot and horseback Visitors enjoy viewing exciting mock battles that took place in Arizona and New Mexico during the Civil War Also on display at the March re enactment are recreated military camps and living history demonstrations For more

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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    short tunic with set in sleeves Woolen and linen fabrics were brightly colored in stripes and checks Barbarians were very proud of their long hair In the Byzantine Empire people wore a long sleeved tunic or chemise Over it they placed a long loose robe with short sleeves This was the costume of the early Christians The toga now became a cape semicircular in shape Among the wealthy robes were lavishly embroidered jeweled and lined with fur Early Medieval costume consisted of three garments an undertunic a long sleeved outer tunic and a mantle Clothes were not buttoned or hooked but were laced together with tapes The knight of the Crusades in the 13th century wore a sleeveless garment over his armor often appliquéd with the family s coat of arms Flowing hair was the fashion for a knight s lady Renaissance fabrics were rich and colorful velvets satins and brocades trimmed with embroideries gold and silver jewels and rare furs In the 15th century women began to wear a real dress called a robe with a full skirt joined to a bodice having tight sleeves From Spain came the first knitted silk stockings There were capes and cloaks caps and hoods The Elizabethan figure was tight waisted Sleeves were puffed and collars became starched ruffs Spain introduced the petticoat of graduated hoops and the steel corset Slippers and heels were first worn at the Spanish and Italian courts Fancy pins came from France and ladies were given pin money by their fathers and husbands so they could buy these expensive pins The 17th century was a time of political and religious upheavals Pilgrims Puritans Dutch and others settled in America France now took the lead in manners and dress The elegant cavalier style came into fashion with graceful velvet and satin exquisite collars and cuffs and large hats with sweeping ostrich plumes Men wore boots ribbons lace ringlets wigs and powder Women wore ringlets curls wigs and dye Scarlet colored capes with hoods were popular as worn by Little Red Riding Hood The Puritans dressed soberly scorning the cavalier style of the day Around 1660 the man s fancy jacket became a tailored coat with pockets and buttons Then the waistcoat was added over a white shirt Next a cravat or neckcloth came into use From this beginning came the suit that men wear today Men turned up the brim of the large beaver hat at various angles and it became the three cornered cocked hat Square toed shoes were fashionable and so were boots There were leather gauntlets for men long kid gloves for ladies and knitted mittens for children Both men and women carried muffs Narrow waists were still the fashion The 18th century French court continued to set the style with ribbons laces silks velvets and flowered taffetas Powdered hair and wigs framed painted faces Men wore a three cornered hat of black felt or beaver edged with gilt or lace and trimmed with ostrich feathers

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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    replaced with colored ones Shoe designers created a wide range of models from sandals to suede boots and from wedge soles to spike heels Dark jackets with light trousers were popular with men Now that garments were being produced in large quantities in factories fashionable clothing was no longer reserved for a privileged few Specialized clothing was made for each and every occasion for men women and children business clothes formal evening attire work clothes casual clothes and sportswear There were new synthetic fabrics as well as the classic woolens silks velvets cottons and laces The sheer nylon stocking replaced silk stockings in the 1930 s Following World War II denim blue jeans became less associated with workwear and more associated with the leisure activities of prosperous post war America Colorful play clothes and sportswear designed for comfort and freedom of movement were designed to suit the modern active lifestyle Southern California became a center of fashion because Hollywood had to be months ahead of the current vogue in dress Otherwise by the time a movie was released the clothes worn in the film would lack the distinctiveness of style that audiences came to expect Movie Costuming Costuming for motion pictures runs into millions of dollars and calls upon the talents of world famous designers and style authorities Every studio has a wardrobe department generally one of its largest units They have huge well lit workrooms complete with seamstresses and tailors A star s wardrobe for a film is designed and created long before the actual filming of a picture The actors must have fittings and wardrobe tests Clothes worn in pictures are tailored precisely because unwanted wrinkles or bulges would be magnified by the camera The wardrobe designer must consider the kind of costume that will best bring out the character to be portrayed as well as how colors and fabrics will look in the lighting to be used Historical costumes are absolutely true to their period The research department examines books magazines old paintings and the like to obtain accurate designs Sketches drawings and even paintings are made and when these are approved the actual making of the costumes is begun Studios may also rent costumes from large costume companies These places have many garments in stock available for immediate use or will make costumes to order Proper accessories are important as the finest details of dress must be carried out Both studios and costume companies have hundreds of pairs of shoes of all styles sizes and colors as well as handbags gloves belts jewelry hats wigs beards scarves fans and the like It was just recently when I learned that Southern California is a great place to get costumes not Halloween costumes but professional theatrical costumes Los Angeles the motion picture capital of the world probably has even more costume warehouses but it was in San Diego where I found what I was looking for while on vacation My husband and I were going to be attending

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  • Knowledge House - Learning Resources - Homeschool Information - Lewis & Clark
    the money for his war in Europe The Louisiana Purchase included the vast uncharted territory between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains from the Gulf Coast up to the Canadian border President Thomas Jefferson organized an expedition to explore the area and map a route to the Pacific Ocean It was his dream to make the United States stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Meriwether Lewis 30 and William Clark 34 were appointed to lead the expedition Neither Lewis nor Clark had much formal schooling while growing up Clark s older brothers taught him frontier skills and he was trained in the art of surveying In the army he learned engineering construction topography and wilderness survival Lewis was educated by a series of tutors and he learned about plants from his mother an herbalist Lewis was an avid reader and as the President s personal secretary he had access to many great books To prepare for the expedition Clark studied astronomy and cartography while Lewis took crash courses in natural history navigation and basic first aid After more than a year of preparation the expedition officially started from St Louis Missouri on May 14 1804 A group of about forty soldiers three interpreters Clark s servant and Lewis dog accompanied them Three large boats carried all of the men and supplies up the Missouri River Their food rations included soup stock salt pork flour cornmeal dried apples coffee tea sugar salt and pepper They took an assortment of weapons clothing cookware navigational and scientific instruments and lots of baubles and trinkets for the Indians But they had no surgeon few medical supplies and no way of sending for help in an emergency The expedition covered about ten miles a day Much of their time was spent hunting and collecting specimens The explorers discovered hundreds of new plants and animals previously unknown to science including the prairie dog jackrabbit black tailed deer pronghorn antelope and bighorn sheep They named thousands of geographic features for members of the expedition government officials sweethearts and relatives They also coined descriptive place names such as Clearwater Creek and Milk River Clark made maps of the expedition s route Lewis and Clark both kept journals to record valuable information about the geography climate plants animals and native tribes of the American West By April 1805 the expedition had reached the mouth of the Yellowstone River Lewis and Clark hired a French Canadian fur trapper and his 16 year old pregnant wife Sacagawea to guide them across the Rocky Mountains Sacagawea would serve as proof that the explorers came in peace and friendship since Indian women didn t travel with war parties They also bought horses from Sacagawea s brother chief of the Shoshone tribe Soon after Sacagawea gave birth to a son Overall Lewis and Clark s journey was not only the longest camping trip it was like the worst vacation ever One time Clark got caught in a flash flood and lost the

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  • Knowledge House: Not Just For Kids
    s 1912 At Pioneer Village you can visit a working blacksmith shop sheriff s office and jail the historic Opera House look through a rifle port in an actual cabin that survived Arizona s bloodiest range war browse through an 1890 s dress shop a complete ranch complex and much more While you re there keep your eyes open for cowboys gunslingers and Victorian ladies Take an online tour of the grounds and check their calendar of events at www pioneer arizona com or call 623 465 1052 for more information about upcoming events Arizona Renaissance Faire The Arizona Renaissance Faire with its thirty acre theatrical European market village offers a unique opportunity to bring an important era in history to life It will be held on Saturdays Sundays and President s Day Monday from February 7 8 thru March 27 28 2004 It will be open from 10 00 AM until 6 00 PM Special student days are set aside for school groups Student Days were created to highlight the educational aspects of the Renaissance time period Language mannerisms customs comedia theatre jousting tournaments artist and craft demonstrations and music are just some of the learning opportunities that await your students at the Arizona Renaissance Festival The Festival provides students with a chance to do more than just read about history they can experience it To receive more information or to order tickets call 520 463 2600 or visit their website at www royalfaires com Arizona Cowboy Shooters Association Back by popular demand the Arizona Cowboy Shooters Association ACSA will present the 2nd annual Battle of Picacho Pass as a theme for a monthly match This year the theme match will be held on February 14 2004 at the Ben Avery Shooting Range to take advantage of the cooler weather for the wearing of wool uniforms Shooters are encouraged to dress in Civil War uniforms or civilian clothing of the period and join in the spirit of this historic Arizona event A synopsis of the Union and Confederate maneuvers in Arizona during the Civil War will be provided Stages will be designed to represent some of the major events leading up to and including the final battle at Picacho Peak So dress up in your Civil War garb and join the fun by reliving some genuine Arizona History The ACSA is a club that promotes 1890 era Cowboy Action Shooting at its finest This family oriented sport is based on fellowship and developing a common bond using vintage weapons and historic costumes centered around the cowboy era Members get together at monthly matches to fulfill their cowboy fantasies by dressing up in authentic period correct cowboy attire and using replica weapons like those that tamed the old west while engaging in a friendly shooting competition staged in a unique characterized Old West style Competitors shoot several different shooting sequences with pistols rifles and shotguns Each participant is required to adopt a shooting alias appropriate to a character or profession of the late 19th century or a Hollywood western star and develop a costume accordingly The cowboy shooters look forward to socializing with other cowboys and cowgirls that share the same interest while passing on shooting tips or just swapping stories Matches are held at the Ben Avery Shooting Facility Visit www acsainc com or www basfaz com for more information Medieval Recreation Event Estrella War XX will be held during the week of February 11 16 2004 at Estrella Mountain Park in Goodyear AZ This event is sponsored by The Society for Creative Anachronism www sca org an international organization dedicated to researching and recreating pre 17th century European history Approximately 5000 reenactors from across the U S and around the world will be camping out there for a week many in period camps that is their tents and furnishings will be very much like what people would have used in the Middle Ages There will be a variety of demonstrations and of course recreational combat This is the second largest Medieval event in the country Estrella War XX is open to all who share in historical interests as a learning opportunity It is not a commercial Renaissance Faire so shopping is not the focal point of this event For more details and directions please visit www estrellawar org On Friday February 13 2004 Estrella War XX will host School Tours From 9 00 AM until 1 00 PM with prior notice the School Tours Team will be in place to give a simple introduction to life in the Middle Ages and direct a free one hour tour through some of the Period Encampment and Demonstration areas displaying a sampling of Medieval life as closely as we can document Please RSVP to Carolyn Bernheim School Tours Coordinator with the best time for your group to participate in the guided tour Carolyn may be reached via email at cbernheim yahoo com Arizona Scottish Highland Games and Festival At this year s event there will be a reenactment of the famous 1745 battle of Culloden Scott Hinkle of We Make History will portray Bonnie Prince Charlie and his wife will play Flora MacDonald the heroine of Scottish history who hid the Bonnie Prince from the English The dates are February 28 29 2004 and the location is Mesa Community College Visit www arizonascots com and click on Games for more information about the festival Picacho Peak State Park Picacho Peak State Park north of Tucson is the site of the Westernmost Battle of The Civil War The largest Civil War miltary re enactment in the Southwest takes place there every year The Civil War battle took place near Picacho Peak on April 15 1862 when an advance detachment of Union forces from California attacked a Confederate scouting party The battle lasted for 1 1 2 hours and three Union soldiers were killed Every March The Civil War in the Southwest comes alive again as over two hundred reenactors converge on Picacho

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  • Knowledge House - Learning Resources - Homeschool Information - Not Just For Kids
    the wood those made of poorer quality wood were painted Since yellow was a color associated with royalty in China this color was chosen to make the pencils appear more regal 75 of the pencils sold in the U S today are still painted yellow William Monroe a cabinetmaker in Concord Massachusetts made the first American wood pencils in 1812 Henry David Thoreau the poet writer philosopher and civil engineer was also a pencil maker His father and uncle started the business in the 1820 s Thoreau discovered that grinding graphite into a finer powder produced higher quality pencils As a result his family was known at the time for making the best pencils in America In 1856 the descendents of Casper Faber built a pencil factory in New York City The company is now called the Eberhard Faber Company Pencils became standard issue for soldiers during the Civil War 1861 1865 Pencils were easier to carry and use than quill pens and ink for writing letters to their loved ones at home In 1873 a man named Joseph Dixon who had previously owned a pencil company in Salem Mass purchased the American Graphite Company of Ticonderoga NY In 1913 the Joseph Dixon Company introduced a pencil featuring a graphite core that was denser stronger and more durable than any other pencil in a hexagonal shape for writing comfort The company wanted a fine American name for a fine American pencil They named it after Fort Ticonderoga The first pencil sharpeners were penknives They were so called because they were used to shape the quills used as early pens Then John Love created the Love Sharpener a simple portable pencil sharpener in which the pencil is rotated by hand Between the 1880s and 1910s numerous inventors and companies took up the challenge of designing mechanical pencil sharpeners Manufacturers continued to make improvements to the pencil In the early 1900 s Eversharp began producing a mechanical pencil By the 1920 s it was selling so well that hundreds of other companies jumped into the market Later plastic pencils were introduced as wood substitutes Today Paper Mate is the largest pencil manufacturer in the United States They produce millions of pencils every day How Pencils Are Made The steps in making pencils were formerly all done by hand Today pencils are made by machine Traditional pencils are composed of three main substances graphite clay and wood The preferred wood is cedar Graphite clay and water are mixed together The kind of pencil depends on this mixture If more clay is used the pencil will be harder that is it will make a finer line and more pressure will be needed to make the line blacker If more graphite is used the pencil will be softer that is it will make thicker blacker lines with less pressure The mixture is then put into molds that form it into strings They are dried packed into metal molds and heated in ovens to a very

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