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  • Gender & Assets Toolkit | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    consumed or sold to generate income Assets such as homes or buildings may both provide services as well as generate rent In addition to tangible assets it is important to remember that assets also encompass intangible items like social capital and education that can be converted into marketable connections and skills Assets are long term stores of wealth that can increase or decrease with investment and time Assets can act as collateral and facilitate access to credit and financial services Their fungibility provides security through emergencies and opportunities in periods of growth In short owning land and livestock homes and equipment and other resources and wealth enables people to create more stable and productive lives Increasing ownership of and control over assets also helps to provide more permanent pathways out of poverty compared to measures that aim to increase incomes or consumption alone Agricultural development projects that seek to increase the asset holdings of the poor contribute to sustainable poverty reduction while promoting self reliance Who controls these assets within the household is critical to household and individual well being There is now substantial evidence that contradicts the common assumption made in economics and many development projects of a unitary model of the household that is the assumption that households are groups of individuals who have the same preferences and fully pool their resources Evidence suggests that while some assets in a household are jointly held many assets within households are held individually by the men women and children who comprise households Haddad et al 1997 Behrman 1997 This allocation of assets to various individuals within households is determined both by the contexts in which households find themselves as well as intra household dynamics The distribution of assets across individuals within a household may in turn affect individuals intra household

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/gender-and-assets-toolkit/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Introduction | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    sold to generate income Assets such as homes or buildings may both provide services as well as generate rent In addition to tangible assets it is important to remember that assets also encompass intangible items like social capital and education that can be converted into marketable connections and skills Assets are long term stores of wealth that can increase or decrease with investment and time Assets can act as collateral and facilitate access to credit and financial services Their fungibility provides security through emergencies and opportunities in periods of growth In short owning land and livestock homes and equipment and other resources and wealth enables people to create more stable and productive lives Increasing ownership of and control over assets also helps to provide more permanent pathways out of poverty compared to measures that aim to increase incomes or consumption alone Agricultural development projects that seek to increase the asset holdings of the poor contribute to sustainable poverty reduction while promoting self reliance Who controls these assets within the household is critical to household and individual well being There is now substantial evidence that contradicts the common assumption made in economics and many development projects of a unitary model of the household that is the assumption that households are groups of individuals who have the same preferences and fully pool their resources Evidence suggests that while some assets in a household are jointly held many assets within households are held individually by the men women and children who comprise households Haddad et al 1997 Behrman 1997 This allocation of assets to various individuals within households is determined both by the contexts in which households find themselves as well as intra household dynamics The distribution of assets across individuals within a household may in turn affect individuals intra household bargaining power

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/gender-and-assets-toolkit/introduction/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Key Questions & Concepts | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    where loss of employment and sickness can suddenly and dramatically change household security On the other hand assets can accumulate over time and are more resilient to fluctuation Furthermore asset ownership may carry intangible benefits such as increasing self esteem and social status which are associated with both individual and household well being The relationship between assets and income can be summarized as follows assets are a stock income is a flow derived from those assets Why is it important to study the distribution of asset access control and ownership across different male and female household members rather than simply looking at the total number of assets held by the household Why should we collect asset ownership data at the individual level rather than the household level A common assumption made in economics and many development projects is that of the unitary household model that is the assumption that households are groups of individuals who have the same preferences and fully pool their resources However this assumption may in fact hide inequalities in access to assets that exist within the household There is now a growing body of evidence that suggests that while some assets in a household are jointly held many assets within households are also held individually by the men women and children who comprise households 1 The distribution of assets across individuals within a household may in turn affect individuals intra household bargaining power when individual preferences over outcomes differ Many studies have concluded that not only do women typically have fewer assets than men but they also use the assets they have differently Increasing women s control over assets mainly land physical and financial assets has been found to positively affect a number of important development outcomes for the household including food security child nutrition and education as well as the women s own well being Aside from the gender dynamics numerous studies have shown that information collected at the household level is not sufficient to measure specific ownership within the household For example a land title is not titled in the name of a household it is titled in the name of a specific household member Does the term gender refer to a focus on women When one refers to a focus on gender and assets are they are interested only in women s assets No although a focus on gender is often incorrectly interpreted as a focus on women the study of gender differences refers to the study of both men and women in relation to each other Therefore in studying gender and assets it is not enough to just look at women s assets It is important to understand the relative position of men and women with respect to assets In particular one should take into account differences in the value quantity and quality of assets owned by men and women within the same household In mainstream economics the conceptual reasoning for considering the relative versus absolute holding of men and women is

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/gender-and-assets-toolkit/key-questions-concepts/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Methods | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    In economics much of the early work on measuring the gender asset gap was conducted in the 1990s in order to test theories of household behavior whether households behaved as though they made decisions as one unit also known as the unitary model or whether they were composed of individuals who may have different preferences and did not necessarily pool their resources Because assets that husbands and wives controlled were thought to influence spouses decision making within marriage early studies collected information on assets at marriage inherited assets and current assets separately for husbands and wives in a wide range of countries Bangladesh Ethiopia Ghana Guatemala Indonesia Mexico Philippines and South Africa 1 However these early attempts at collecting gender disaggregated asset data did not pay much attention to asset ownership by other household members even if the bulk of household assets are typically owned by husband and wife and were typically confined to smaller samples 300 1000 households that were not necessarily nationally representative 2 Early work by Deere Doss and Grown in the 2000s attempted to systematize the collection of individual level asset data in the context of large scale household surveys similar to the Living Standards Measurement Studies This led to current efforts to measure assets at the individual level in the In Her Name project For more information see the Methods section of the Gender and Assets Toolkit The following GAAP presentations provide useful background information on methods Data Needs on Measuring Impacts on Women s Assets and Asset Disparities Conceptual Framework for Identifying Gendered Impacts of Agricultural Programs Gender Strategies and Methods for Monitoring and Evaluation 1 These studies can be found in Quisumbing ed 2003 2 There were of course exceptions The Indonesia Family Life Survey Frankenberg and Thomas 2001 was nationally representative and

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/gender-and-assets-toolkit/qualitative-methods/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Quantitative | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    monitoring and evaluation or impact evaluations Household and individual level data are typically collected using quantitative household surveys with a standardized questionnaire typically with fixed coded responses although some may allow open ended responses to be coded later Data for quantitative analyses may include panel data that is data collected about the same households over a number of years which allow for analysis of changes over time Some of the surveys collect data at the level of the individual household member which allows for comparison between men and women and also helps to capture the full range of livelihood strategies within the household Sampling to cover the range of wealth and or poverty categories is critical for these types of surveys Although some qualitative data is included in the quantitative surveys researchers analyze most survey data including qualitative responses using statistical or econometric techniques in statistics packages such as SPSS Stata or SAS For more detailed information about quantitative methods for impact evaluation and for monitoring and evaluation see the Methods section of the Gender and Assets Toolkit For examples of quantitative survey modules that collect gender and assets data see the Quantitative Resources section Benefits Representativeness Large sample sizes ensure that data will be more representative of the populations in question Causation Econometric methods allow you to test scenarios and calculate attribute causality and estimate impacts to better understand which aspects of programs are more effective Availability of existing data Some data is already publicly available in censuses and other databases thus it may be possible to conduct analysis without new data collection efforts Challenges Establishing context With quantitative data it is more difficult to understand nuances of a given culture and context This may lead to a tendency towards generalizations Difficulties in establishing causality Even with good data

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/quanitative-methods/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Quantitative Resources | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    including questionnaires data documentation interviewer manual Good example of how to collect plot disaggregated data including extensive information on ownership gender etc by plot ILRI PROGEBE Household Survey West Africa Adult Women s Questionnaire including food consumption ownership of assets livelihood strategies access to labor and decision making vulnerability context Sample Asset Ownership Questionnaire from Doss Grown Deere 2008 Full Questionnaire Presentation on Quantitative Impact Evaluation Methods Access it here ILRI Gender Livestock and Livelihood Indicators Guide The gender livestock and livelihoods indicators a reference point for some of the important indicators that ILRI and partners can use to monitor the changing role of livestock in livelihoods in different production systems and the impact of livestock related interventions has been revised Access it here LSMS ISA web resources on general questionnaire design This website provides detailed information on developing questionnaires for household surveys annotated questionnaires and questionnaire examples available for download Access it here Gender and Asset Ownership A Guide to Collecting Individual Level Data This paper sets out a framework for researchers who are interested in collecting data on individual level asset ownership and analyzing the gender asset gap It reviews best practices in existing surveys with respect to data collection on assets at both the household and individual levels and shows how various questions on individually owned assets can be incorporated with a minimum of effort and cost into existing multi topic household surveys using examples of three Living Standard Measurement Study surveys Access it here The manual Developing Gender Statistics A Practical Tool This toolkit aims to guide statistical organizations in the production and use of gender statistics Gender statistics is not a discrete or isolated field It cuts across traditional fields of statistics such as economics agriculture health and employment to explore the differences that exist

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/quanitative-resources/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Qualitative | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    and women may be culture specific and difficult to get at using standard survey questionnaires without prior qualitative work such as collecting life histories or focus group interviews to better understand dynamics surrounding major risks Allows for greater flexibility to ask and probe about interesting findings When collecting asset data there are often important gender differences in the spectrum of asset ownership that may not be accurately captured in household surveys with predetermined answers For example what it means to use or control a given asset may be entirely different from what it means to own that asset and differences in categories of asset ownership may fall along gender lines with important distinctions not easily captured in surveys There may be additional qualitative differences in the kinds or types of assets that male and females own which only emerge from in depth discussions with the respondents themselves Qualitative research also allows respondents to express their own opinions freely thus allowing researchers to better understand why men and women may accumulate different types of assets in the first place Ethnographic methods such as participant observation can provide key insights into gender roles in agriculture and non agricultural activities and prolonged residence in villages may reveal aspects of intra household negotiations hiding of assets or sensitive topics that respondents may not reveal in surveys Challenges Accurate data collection requires greater training and expertise Because qualitative methods are less pre specified than household or other quantitative surveys they require more on the spot analysis by the person collecting the data to know what issues and ideas to follow up In comparison in quantitative surveys enumerators are usually trained to ask questions in a standardized manner and most of the analysis is done using statistical analysis back in the office As a result finding

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/qualitative/ (2016-05-01)
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  • Q Squared: Combined Qualitative & Quantitative | Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project
    and topics relatively efficiently Rather than seeing this as a second best solution such a combined approach can actually provide a more convincing analysis than any single method This is because studies have found that people respond differently to quantitative and qualitative information Numbers are required to convince some audiences while others will be unimpressed by numbers but relate more to in depth and contextual information gathered using qualitative techniques Triangulation where several types of data are used in a single study and used to cross check and compare results enables any weaknesses in one method to be offset by the strengths of another An assessment of 57 mixed method studies identified five purposes for mixing methods 1 triangulation seeking convergence of results 2 complementarities examining overlapping and different facets of a phenomenon 3 initiation discovering paradoxes contradictions fresh perspectives 4 development using the methods sequentially such that results from the first method inform the use of the second method and 5 expansion adding breadth and scope to a project 1 For more detailed information about Q squared methods for impact evaluation and for monitoring and evaluation see the Methods section of the Gender and Assets Toolkit 1 Greene Caracelli

    Original URL path: http://gaap.ifpri.info/integrating-qual-and-quant/ (2016-05-01)
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