archive-info.com » INFO » A » ANCIENTS.INFO

Total: 23

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".
  • page18
    Go to Yanina volume 3

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page28.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive


  • page1
    established by observing the coin legends of the first quarter of the XV century The mints of Ulu Mohammed were founded already in the other Bulghar New Bulghar although on the coins is preserved the old name These coins are not found in Bulghar city and completely absent in Aga Bazar It is possible to suppose that the desertion of Bulghar is connected with the historical process of the final fall of the Golden Horde into the fully isolated independent governments of Kazan Astrakhan and the Krimea In any case in summarizing the problem one must decided for this stated connection By placing the mintage of coins collected in Bulghar and Aga Bazar in context with the materials collected from the cities of Selitrennoe and Narodchat one can come to certain conclusions see Table 3 Table 3 affirms the correctness of the point of view of V V Grigoriev and A A Krotkov that coins minted in any Golden Horde city accepted as legal tender with an increasing radius of their distribution from the center of production gradually lessen in quantity showing their maximum use in the center and minimum use in the periphery 8 Here follow a list of errata that have been incorporated in the translation David Elliott In the catalog are used the following preserving the enumeration of published coins Rec p No Ch M Fraehnii Recensio numovum muhammedanorum Petersburg 1826 Fr No X M Fren Coins of the Khans of Ulus Juchi or the Golden Horden with Coins of Some Mohammed Dynasties in Addition Moscow 1832 pp 418 425 Krotkov page No A A Krotkov Two Collections of Juchi Coins Works of the Lower Volga Society of Local Historians issue 37 Saratov 1930 page No Catalog of Juchi Coins of the Kuibyshev Expedition collected 1958 Monetary material of the Kuibyshev expedition of 1958 found in a secondary bed created from a second layer of XVI XIX centuries but also collected in the city In all 92 coins were found 9 silver and 83 copper not counting two completely effaced coins The coins finds of 1958 as a whole only increase the collected examples of types and variants established before No 9a 26g 26h 57c 90 92b 143a 146a counterstamps 146b and c were among the coins found first by the Kuibyshev expedition Baraka Khan 1256 1266 No 2 Copper Obverse An Nasir id din Allah an Orthodox true believing sovereign Reverse Earthly life is short therefore make God welcome 8 examples chance finds Rec p 188 No 2 Fr No 21 No 4 Copper Obverse Mangu khan tamgha Mangu supreme Reverse Mint tamgha Mangu Bulghar 2 examples Rec p 191 No 1 Fr No 3 Anonymous Coins minted between 1280 and 1310 No 9a Silver Obverse In a design of dotted line circling in the midst of which is a fine circle An Nasir lid dinAllah Above below and on the sides vines Reverse In a square design of points part of which is transected by

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page29.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • page21
    fig 1 16 and from the year 845 AH 1441 1442 this tamgha and different variants became the basic element of the Krim khans coins fig 2 36 22 Images Images placed on coins are not types from Muslim culture and on silver issues of Krim is found only one example of a breach of this tradition fig 2 40 However one copper issue found in local forms of monetary ciculation does not forbid apparently such things and here we observe a wide spectrum of images Repeatedly on Krim puls is met images of bowmen on a horse for example on an anonymous pul of the 13th century fig 2 37 and on an anonymous coins of the 14th century fig 2 38 In the last example images of a horseman is able to be considered as a type of spoken image appearing as the beginning of a phrase which ends in Arabic on the other side On the whole one is able to read Mounted bowman strength of Krim In the 15th century the horseman with unclear attribution we see again on a follis of Kaffa fig 2 39 It is interesting that this apparently age old symbol of the nomad Mongols and Ghenghis Khan is completely not met with on Juchi coins of other regions although well known on Mongol issues of Persia 23 Lion or snow leopard is placed on copper coins of the Golden Horde met with on Krim coin on silver coins of Tokhta fig 2 40 and anonymous puls apparently minted at the end of the 14th century fig 2 41 A group of a few aneigraphic coins of Krim are found produced at the end of the 13th century with the tamgha of the House of Batu on them has on the reverse side images of different animals fig 2 43 45 The poorly preserved stylized images of animals do not allow us to establish specific associations but this does not exclude that these calendric animals of the Mongol calendar cycle appear as the official calendar of the Mongols from 1210 24 The elk with bended legs is imaged on other aneigraphic puls produced in Krim fig 2 42 It is well known that in the world view of the Turkish people the elk plays a special role and its image fig 1 17 20 a basic motif of ivory faced quivers found in graves of Lower Polovstia Northern Caucuses and the Northern Black Sea 25 Readily placed on coins are images of birds that is confirmed for example by birds of prey on puls of Tokhta 702 AH fig 2 17 stylized birds with open wings on two anonymous puls from the end of the 13th century fig 2 49 50 Completing the bird symbols on coins with images of two headed eagles very wide spread in capital issues of the middle 14th century In Krim is found some types of puls with two headed eagles which can be indisputably regarded as the only type of Krim issue representing in Figure 2 47 A very distorted legend on other coins fig 2 46 witnesses to various readings the latest dated variant reads Issue of Krim of 744 year However this fact that of many dozens of types of Krim coins only this one is often met with in excavated material of Bulghar city 13 examples appear among the coins found 1946 1958 according to S A Yanina which compels one to remember the other variant of the inscription proposed by R R Fasmer Issue of Sarai year 749 26 This does not exclude the possibility that both variants do not reflect the truth A third type conditionally regarded as an issue of Krim fig 2 48 on the basis of Krim origins of two well known examples by the author and the tamgha with stems on th ehead like Krim coins from the time of Tula Beg fig 2 8 9 Such copper coins with two headed eagles were found in Krim monetary circulation of neighboring governments for example Hulagu Puls of Tokhta 751 AH produced in the region of Azov 27 Modern articles about this popular symbol is in a lengthy work of L L Galkin 28 The original symbol of Krim must be the image of the suns face not met with as a type on other coins of the Golden Horde centers fig 2 12 51 53 The source of this apparently is found in Little Asis where it has long been a tradition for example in the mint of Sotursk Maritsina Image of the sun face lasting from the 11th to the beginning of the 14th century 29 Geometrical Ornamentation The object of attention in this part will be only the ornamentations which appear as a basic element of the image Types of cartouches which frame the coins field in Golden Horde numismatics does not play a basic role in the determination of coin type as it has in the issues of Chagatai 30 Especially Krim coins where the ornamentation appears as a basic element of the image is rare There is a characteristic figure for all types of coins of the whole Golden Horde On coins of the 13th century it is three leaf fig 2 61 six pointed star made with overlapping triangles fig 2 8 9 55 In the literature about this figure in particular reference to the Golden Horde it signifies the star of Solomon however archeological data says that here is displayed a sign of one of the seven heavenly bodies 35 Popular flower rosettes with 6 or 8 leaves fig 2 56 57 It is not traditional for coins to have many rayed stars with curved rays fig 1 21 32 like the glass beads33 from excavated New Sarai or the d cor of the lower fountain of the monastery in Old Krim 34 On the coins of the 14th century with such ornaments which are positively produced in Krim mints only

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page31.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • page1
    city and the well known literary monuments do not reflect about it Data about the construction of Sarai in 1332 which is recounted from the information of Arabshah agrees with the excavated plots of Selitrennoe The previous text of Arabshah apparently discourses about one city and is not a basis to divide it into two cities A cursory analysis of the information from Al Omar in the context of the development of the Muslim city in general permits us to make the conclusions about the growth of Sarai in the epoch of the reign of Khan Uzbek 1312 1341 It agrees wit the data of Arabshah and the archeological data of Selitrennoe Such circumstances allow me to consider the toponymy of Sarai and Sarai al Jedid to be regarded as one city situated in place of indicated town Selitrennoe All the archeologists working on these ruins investigated the remains of New Serai which is why the whereabouts of the previous Sarai has still not appeared But on the other hand in the time of the rule of Toktamish in the beginning of the 15th century the dirham coins allow for a Sarai and Sarai al Jedid This appears to be a witness about two cities with the same name In these affairs we do not know the organization of the coinage in Ulus Juchi nor the principles of distributing monetary regalia to cities the rights by which cities were granted mints etc The coinage is not able to serve as an indirect witness that the Sarais were separate cities The Janibek dirhams use three mints Sarai al Jedid Khorezm and Gulistan There is only one silver coin dated 749 AH with the mint Sarai al Maxrussa The whereabouts of Gulistan will not be examined in detail here Khorezm is not called into doubt Only the location of the first place remains unclear Under Toktamish the majority of money is minted with the Arabis word beled that in this period designates primarily COUNTRY TERRITORY REGION CITY We read beled Azak beled Krin beled Sarai beled Chadi Tarkhan but no beled Khorezm Beled Sarai al Jedid is met only very seldom in the year 791 AH Only once on dirhams of 775 AH is found beled Orda Usually the word beled means city but Orda was not a city in itself Khorezm is historically a region the capital of which at various times was Kyat or Urgench But why having beled Sarai do we not also have beled Sarai al Jedid even though Gulistan Rose Garden of the Desert appears on the dirham coinage under Janibek in 752 AH as beled Gulistan The answer thrusts itself forward Sarai al Jedid was not a beled e Every city where it was permitted silver coinage was a center of a province Is it possible in general in the Golden Horde as in other Muslim governments that coinage customarily allowed the name of the place where taxes and other revenues were gathered from which silver

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page33.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • page1
    the defeated returned to Italy with the plague Hajji Giray AR akce afine Tamgha 1418 1466 rev Inscription AH867 Qrim A2068 15mm Mengli Giray 1493 AR akce afine Tamgha 1466 1514 rev Inscription 888 Qiriq Yer A2070 14mm Mengli Giray 1493 AR akce vgood Tamgha 1466 1514 rev Inscription 13mm Muhammad I Giray AR akce fine Inscription and tamgha 1514 1525 rev Inscription A2071 14mm Dawlat II Giray Billon akce afine Tamgha AH 957 1550 1577 rev Inscription A2074 13mm Krim Muhammad II AR akce vgood Inscription and tamgha 1577 1584 rev Inscription A2075 Ghasi Giray AR akce fine Inscription 1585 1608 rev Inscription A2077 Salamat I Giray AR akce vgood Inscription 1608 1610 rev Inscription A2078 Muhammad IV Giray AR para fine Inscription and tamgha 1641 1644 rev Inscription 1st reign Murad Giray AR para fine Inscription and tamgha 1678 1683 rev Inscription A2086 Selim I AR para fine Inscription 1684 1691 rev Inscription A2087 2nd reign Ghazi III Giray AE pul vgood Inscription 1704 1708 rev Inscription Dawlat II Giray AR para fine Inscription and tamgha 1708 1713 rev Inscription A2093 2nd reign Saadat III Giray AR para fine Inscription 1717 1724 rev Inscription A2095 Mengli Giray II

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page45.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • page1
    Grand Princes of Moscow Dmitri Donskoi 1359 1389 Vasili I Basil the Blind 1389 1425 Vasili II Basil II 1425 1462 Ivan III Ivan the Great 1462 1505 first Sovereign for all Russia Vasili III Basil III 1505 1533 Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible 1533 1547 Tsars of Russia 1547 1721 Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible 1547 1584 Feodor I Theodore I 1584 1598 last of the Riurikovich Boris Godunov 1598 1605 Feodor II Theodore II 1605 False Dmitri I 1605 1606 Vasili IV Basil IV 1606 1610 Succession broken due to Time of Troubles Michael I 1613 1645 first of the Romanovs elected Tsar following the Time of Troubles Aleksei I 1645 1676 Feodor III Theodore IV 1676 1682 Ivan V 1682 1696 joint ruler with Peter I Peter I Peter the Great 1682 1721 Novgorod Republic AE pulo fine crowned head 15th C rev P U L O NOVA G O PO D A cf Sp 67 9 Novgorod Republic AR denga vfine Two standing figures 1420 1456 rev Four line Inscription Sp66 1 Tver AE pulo fine bird right 15th C rev P U L OTB bPbCKOE cf Sp 67 1 Tver AE pulo fine bird left 15th C rev P U L OTB bPbCKOE cf Sp 67 1 Moscow AE pulo fine 2 headed eagle 15th C rev P U L OMOCK BACK OE cf Sp 67 1 Ivan III AR denga fine knight on horse 1462 1505 rev 2 banners with monogram Sp 75 5 Basil III AR denga fine 2 stars rosette BE LHKH 1505 1533 rev rosette MOCKOBCR D EH G A Sp 75 6 Ivan IV Terrible AR denga fine horseman right 1533 1584 rev KHSb BE L IKI IBAHb Sp 79 8 Moscow Ivan IV AR kopeck doublestruck good St George

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page51.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive

  • page1
    star above 1400 1432 rev Shield Emirate of Bukhara is an ancient part of modern Uzbekistan that became a Russian protectorate in 1868 and part of Soviet Uzbekistan in 1924 The Khanate of Khiva successfully fought off Peter the Great and became a Russian protectorate in 1873 and part of the Soviet Republic of Khorezm in 1924 A Russian protectorate then occupied off and on from 1768 1857 Moldavia Wallachia C vgood crest MohMoldVGaloch 1768 1774 rev 2 P APA KO P bEKb in square Spl74 1 Moldavia Wallachia C vgood crest MohMoldVGaloch 1768 1774 rev 2 P APA KOPbEKb in square Spl74 1 Nasrullah AR afine Inscription 1826 1860 rev Inscription 1858 C 72 Muzaffar al Din AR afine Inscription 1860 1885 rev Inscription 1878 C 91 Muzaffar al Din AR afine Inscription 1860 1885 rev Inscription 1883 C 91 Sayyid Abdul Ahad AR fine Inscription 1885 1911 rev Inscription 1886 Y 2 Bukhara AE fine 1 tenga rev Stars dotted border 1918 Y 6a 2 Bukhara AE 1 tenga fine Arabic 1918 rev Stars dotted border 1918 KM 46 2 Bukhara AE fine Arabic inscription 2 Tenga rev Star Arabic inscription 1918 KM 47 Bukhara AE good 3

    Original URL path: http://byzantinebronzes.ancients.info/page61.html (2016-05-01)
    Open archived version from archive