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  • page8
    1219 rev cross between two lions 21mm Bulgaria Ivan Asen I AE trachy good fine Christ enthroned 1187 1196 rev Saint crowning king DO 25 1 5 25mm Bulgaria Asen I AE trachy fine broken A enthroned with scepter and gospels 1187 1196 rev Iron cross 25mm Bulgaria Ivan Alexander AR grosh fine Christ stands with cross 1323 1371 rev Ivan and Michael III standing 18mm Bulgaria Ivan Shishman AR grosh fine Christ with cross 1371 1395 rev I stands with cross and scepter 15mm Bulgaria John Stracimar AR grosh vgood Christ facing 1360 1396 rev bust right 16mm Genoa AR denier fine Castle IANVA 1139 1339 rev cross Rex ONRAD 18mm Hungary Bela III AE trachy vfine Virgin enthroned SanctaMaria 1172 1196 rev B Queen enthroned Rex Bela RexSos 27mm Seljuks of Rum AE follis fine horseman right 1102 1210 rev Arabic legend Mitchner 959 24mm Serbia Dushan AR dinar afine Christ standing 1346 l355 rev D and saint standing Imperator 18mm Sicily William I AE trachy vfine Madonna and Child 1151 1166 rev REX W Arabic T2463 15mm Venice AR Grosso vgood St Mark and Doge standing 13th 15th rev Christ enthroned 17mm Go to Golden Horde coins

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  • page1
    A2023 Khwarezm 17mm Toqtu AE fals fine 3 ovals 1290 1312 rev stick man L61 a d Krim 18mm Mohammed Uzbek AR dirhem fine inscription 1312 1341 rev inscription A2025 Krim 17mm Jani Beg AR dirhem afine inscription 1341 1357 rev inscription A2027 M1523 New Serai 17mm Jani Beg AR fine Uighur inscription 1341 1357 rev inscription Sarai al Jedid 743 17mm Jani Beg Khan AE fals fine Flower design 1341 1357 rev Arabic M1529 Serai 19mm Jani Beg Khan AE fals fine Flower design 1341 1357 rev Arabic 753 1342 3 L31e1 Serai al Jedid 19mm Birdi Beg AR dinar fine Inscription 1357 1358 rev Inscription 1358 Gulistan A2031 17mm Nuruz Beg AR Inscription 1358 1359 rev Inscription Gulistan 761 17mm Khizr Khan AE fals fine Arabic design 1358 1360 rev Arabic Gulistan 19mm Kildii Beg Khan AE fals fine Arabic in wreath 1360 rev Arabic in circle Azaq 19mm Mir Pulad AE fals afine Design of triangles and dots Inscription 1362 1363 rev Inscription AH 764 Serai al Jedid 18mm Tulan Beg Khan AE fals fine Stick man 1370 1373 rev Arabic L23 19mm Urus AR dirham fine Inscription 1368 1378 rev Inscription A2047 Sighnaq 17mm Muhammad Bulaq

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  • page2
    vgood Eagle rev Arabic Yp 400 16mm Anonymous AE fals vgood Eagle rev Arabic in square L46 19mm Anonymous AE good Eagle 14th AD rev Star with dots 17mm Anonymous AE vgood tamgha rev inscription in circle 18mm Anonymous AE

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  • page5
    of mistaken identification and such like everything is preserved in the original Inscriptions on coins not raising any doubts are given without an account of the specific coin 5 Images from poorly preserved excavated coins do not give exemplary inscriptions unless one compares them with coins of good preservation from the collection of the Interior Minstry GIM or the Hermitage 6 Certified coins those numbered and described where found are shown by the place located when dealing with identical coins 7 In the situation when the inscription on the coin is not readable in any way then signs are used 8 For the numbered coins in this inventory in the Table Annotations is written the catalog number of the coin from the excavation in Bulghar Fr No refers to X M Fren Coins of the Khans of Ulus Juchi or the Golden Horde with Coins of Some Mohammed Dynasties in Addition Moscow 1832 9 The words that are missing in the inscriptions on the coins after careful consideration to their reconstruction are included in brackets 10 At the end of the article the coin images are given a numbered chart of the counterstamps and a table which shows the numbered coins stratigraphical position There is also a description of a coin hoard of 52 silver Juchi coins 1333 1364 found in 1947 in Bulghar on a plot of land by A K Ippolitov and acquired by the Kuibyshev expedition The following inventories are used with the indicated abbreviations in this catalog Fr No X M Fren Coins of the Khans of Ulus Juchi or the Golden Horde with Coins of Some Mohammed Dynasties in Addition Moscow 1832 pp 418 425 Sav No P S Saviliev Coins of the Juchi Chagatai Jelairid and Others Circulating in the Golden Horde Epoch of Toktamish Transactions of the Archeological Society vol 12 part 1 Moscow 1858 Cat Herm A Markov Inventory Catalog of Muslim Coins of the Imperial Hermitage Moscow 1896 Grig No V V Grigoriev Inventory of Hoards of Golden Horde Coins Found Near the Ruins of Sarai Transactions of A NO vol 2 Moscow 1850 pp 1 63 Lik N P Likachev Material for the History of Byzantine and Russian Seals vol 2 Rec Ch M Fraehnii Recensio numovum muhammedanorum Petersburg 1826 B with year and No Bulghar year excavated No in the inventory I have included the errata into the text found in the fourth part of these monographs Stratigraphical tables have been omitted I have tried to follow a consistent format and have collected all imaged coins into plates provided at the end There are undoubtedly errors when translating from Arabic to Russian to English I have followed the spelling of khans from a mixture of Stephen Albums Checklist and Michael Mitchiners The World of Islam but have preserved the dates of S A Yanina throughout David Elliott Baraka Khan 1256 1266 The Beginning of Minting in the Golden Horde No 1 Silver dinar Obverse An Nasir id din Allah an Orthodox true believing sovereign Reverse Dinar minted Bulghar 1 example Weight 1 28 grams B 52 No 27 Rec p 187 No 1 Fr No 19 No 2 Copper Obverse An Nasir id din Allah an Orthodox true believing sovereign Reverse Earthly life is short therefore make God welcome 40 examples Rec p 188 No 2 Fr No 21 No 3 Silver Obverse Mangu Kha n Reverse minted Bulghar 5 examples Weight 1 07 grams B 47 No 125 1 08g B 49 No 88 1 04 g B 52 No 15 0 80g B 52 No 119 B 50 No 23 Rec p 190 No 2 Fr No 1 No 4 Copper Obverse and Reverse same as No 3 18 examples Rec p 190 No 2 Fr No 2 No 5 Silver Obverse Arid Beg high khan Reverse Minted Bulghar 2 examples Weight 0 47 grams B 51 No 148 0 67g B 52 No 35 Rec p 191 No 1 Fr No 3 The mint place of the very earliest Juchi coins as in particular seen from cited legends appears to be not Sarai capital of the Golden Horde khans but Bulghar The choice of naming Bulghar the place of minting coins is well explained by the general economic situation of the Volga region after the complete destruction and conquest by the Mongols Until the time of the Mongol conquest Bulghar was a very large historically established mercantile artisan center of Povolzhye In regards to this there are numerous historical facts why the first Golden Horde khan chose Povolzhye as the center of his government to reestablish his own political situation which would account for the quick restoration of the economic life of the Povolzhye region Forced seizure of artisans and transport of them to the Golden Horde center stimulation of economic trade and merchants are some of the manifestations of this policy A fundamental effort was made to economically strengthen the new capital Sarai but due to the slow pace economic superiority was of necessity preserved by Bulghar Similar activities due to Mongol conquests shows that this is not anything unusual It goes without saying writes Frederick Engels in Anti During that with each conquest more barbaric people upset the economic development and destroy the whole mass of productive forces But in the huge majority of cases after a terrible conquest the wild conquerors are forced to adopt the higher economic condition as it is found in the conquered side 10 Revival of the merchant and artisanal life does not entail by itself wide development of a monetary economy Up to this time however the conclusion is not clear about which khan when and by what name minted the first coins in the Golden Horde X M Fren11 and Stanley Lane Poole12 considered the first Juchi coins coins minted in Bulghar with the name of the high khan Mangu and Arid Beg When and by what khan the coins began to be minted neither they nor

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  • page8
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  • page11
    coins of this time minted in the Lower Volga cities and in the environs of Bulghar and Rajan Pulad see Catalog No 121 162 Taking into consideration the periodization of the history of Bulghar is preliminary More detailed study of the subject under discussion is connected with the exact chronological situation of a group of undated coins Such coins consisting of a well known division of Juchi numismatics is most fully written about and published by X M Fren and attributed by him completely to the time of the Golden Horde 8 At the dawn of study of Golden Horde Numismatics questions about their exact dating was not established in such detail as in the present time when undated coins came in massive finds by the excavations of cultural layers of Juchi cities Published numismatic materials from the collection of the Kuibyshev expedition 1946 1952 raise in my opinion the following issues about the dating of these groups of undated coins 1 coins with the names an Nasir lid din Allah and Mangu minted in Bulghar silver and copper 2 Aneigraphic coins with the tamgha of the house of Batu mostly silver some copper 3 undated groups of coins minted at Sarai al Jedid with images of stylized two headed eagles copper 4 undated coins with images of animals and birds copper 5 coins with the name Ali copper 6 counterstamped coins partly silver mostly copper 7 clipped coins and imitations silver For some of these groups the last years have accumulated new materials which in the majority of cases confirm the assumed earlier dating but in other cases permitted their revision Coins with the name an Nasir lid din Allah Determination of the chronology of these coins is connected exactly with the resolution of the problems of the beginning of minting coins in the Golden Horde Not any of the investigators of Golden Horde numismatics raised doubts in regards to the mint place of the first Juchi coins The foundation of the first mint in the Middle Povolzhye Bulghar and not in the residence of the khan Sarai is well explained by the special general circumstances of the economic situation of Povolzhye after its destruction by the Mongols Already the first of the Golden Horde khans chose Povolzhye as the center of government by calculating to quickly resurrect the economic life of the Povolzhye region Strengthening the region by pulling together the ancient system of merchant trade and the center of economic life seizing important territory the outlaying districts of which were connected by traditional trade routes made it impossible for the Golden Horde khans to discount the position of Bulghar being the focal point leading to Russian Krim Lower Povolzhye Khorezm and further on to Middle Asia Mongolia and China The forcible seizure of artisans was used to counter the effects of their loss and the Golden Horde khans sought to strengthen the tempo of development of the all the cities in Povolzhye Consequently Bulghar located in an especially advantageous position and being also an ancient economic center of Povolzhye it became necessary to preserve its leading role The promotion of Bulghar to first place in great degree was especially favored by the destruction of the Mongol Great City Bilyara 9 Sacking the rich regions of Eastern Europe Caucuses and Middle Asia put in circulation in Povolzhye huge quantities of precious metals chiefly silver The growth of cities the development of trade and markets necessarily intensified the need for regulating exchange the need to create a monetary system and to begin minting coins These needs were satisfied in this period when Bulghar was established as the center of economic life in Povolzhye The preconditions for minting coins arose very quickly in the Golden Horde But when and by what khan was minting begun Which coins should be counted as the first issue from the mints of the Golden Horde These questions above all remain before the investigators of Juchi numismatics Assignment of these original groups of coins inevitably included very long arguments about the attribution of the Bulghar coins bearing the name of caliph an Nasir lid din Allah the righteous in Baghdad from 1180 1225 As regards the attribution of these coins there are three types of silver coins and one of copper figure 1 up to this time there are two opposing opinions expressed whether to count these coins as Juchi or assign them to the mint of the Volga Bulghars at the time of Caliph an Nasir The typological description of these coins was given by X M Fren10 in the end of the 80 s of the last century 1888 was repeated by A F Likachev11 Of the silver types the most wide spread are the following Obverse An Nasir ad din Allah in place of lid din S Ya orthodox sovereign Reverse Dinar for silver coins S Ya Mint Bulghar see Catalog No 1 Copper type appears with the following image Fig 1 4 Obverse Same as on the silver Reverse Earthly life is short therefore make God welcome do what is pleasing to God Considerably more rarely found are the two remaining silver types which are fundamentally different on both sides On one of them fig 1 3 the religious saying that is on the copper coin and on the other fig 1 1 to that inscription which is placed on both sides of the coin is added the word fig 1 1 Arabic forming mint Bulgharski 12 O I Smirnov to whom I showed this type of coin proposed a translation as Exechquer and the whole legend on both sides to read as Dinar minted by Bulghars Exchequer This reading appears to be very apt as we will see further it allows one to see in the type of coin a very early type of Golden Horde minting Silver coins of the basic type and especially with the inscription above on copper coins are found in the larger quantities in all the collections of Juchi coins For the correct understanding of the place of these coins in the series of early types of Povolzhye mint it is necessary to quickly note one interesting and important circumstance Copper coins with the name an Nasir lid din Allah serve as it were as a monetary circle for mints of definitely Juchi coins issued in Bulghar in the name of the Most High Khan Mangu that is these groups of coins are the chronological frame which exactly determine the time of rule of Mangu 1251 1259 fig 2 It is Bulghar coins with the name Mangu that X M Fren opens his description of Juchi coins in his own catalog 13 Observing the above monetary material of the Kuibyshev expedition and the collection of the Government Historical museum allows us to affirm that all without exception of the Bulghar coins with the name of Khan Mangu minted on the coins are not engraved with the name an Nasir lid din Allah The name of Caliph an Nasir lid din Allah gave the basis for X M Frens twice expressed supposition that the minting of these coins continued in Bulghar until the the Mongol conquest 14 Later X M Fren changed his point of view calling these coins Juchi and placed their time of minting to 1282 1311 15 The change of view of X M Fren is connected with this that lid din Allahname are found on dated Juchi coins minted on issues a long time after his death Placing the name of dead caliphs on coins is able to be explained by this that an Nasir lid din Allah was revived for a short period since the visible past greatness of the Abbasid caliphate was received with great honor in the Muslim world 16 In the matter of dating X M Fren proposes that the investigator be guided in this given situation apparently by the dates on the Juchi coins anachronistically using the name of an Nasir P S Saveliev in 1858 after the death of X M Fren verified the original point of view of his teacher concerning these coins which are of special interest to us He relates these matters very briefly but in a very definitive form Among the unique arguments in service of this point of view as noted earlier remains the name of an Nasir on the coins P S Saveliev proposes to make of the Volga Bulghar coins of the pre Mongol period a special category with subdivisions in the sections which stretch for a time to almost 300 years first X century second going from XII century to the first quarter of the XIII century 17 Through 30 years the point of view of P S Saveliev supported A F Likachev 18 In spite of this in the nature of a new argument he agrees about he archaic appearance of these coins which very little separates them from Juchi coins which does not prevent the possibility of confusing them 19 Besides this A F Likachev turns his attention to the heavy weight of these coins weighing in between 46 and 56 grains 2 0 2 4 grams 20 The weight is distinct from the weights of undoubtedly determined early Juchi coins with the names Mangu and Arid Bird Finally in the concluding survey of this question in literature it is necessary to mention the article of V Smolena21 in which the author unlearnedly repeats the opinion of P S Saveliev Considering these Juchi coins I must pause to analyze the argument of these sharply opposed points of view These points of view encounter a whole series of objections Firstly uniting the Bulghar mint of the X century and coins with the name of an Nasir lid din Allah in one group P S Saveliev does not explain such important characteristics of the last group of coins as the absence on them of a name of a ruler among these coins of the Volga Bulgars of the tenth century was minted only with the name of the caliph but also with the name of the place of mint Malik Secondly the historical situation of the end of the XII century to the beginning of the XIII century is such that it does not allow one to ignore some of the causes of the politico economic connections of the Volga Bulgars with the Arab caliphate which would be able to serve as a cause for the survival of the original coins minted at Bulghar in the name of the Baghdad caliph Thirdly neither P S Saveliev nor A F Likachev are able to explain the causes of placing on obviously Juchi coins the name of an Nasir lid din Allah and within this category they deny the attribution of undated coins minted at Bulghar in the name of a mint of the Golden Horde Fourthly the argument of A F Likachev about not recapitualing archaic coins also is not able to counted as well grounded since among coins of the Golden Horde right up to the reform of Tokta this is not an infrequently found type just as archaic as the Bulghar coins with the name of an Nasir lid din Allah Fifthly the interpretation of metrological peculiarities of the examined coins make by A F Likachev is really superficial Comparing the weights of a given group of coins of with the names an Nasir lid din Allah Mangu Khan and Arid Bird A F Likachev passes over an interesting observation which contradicted his own conclusions In this manner A F Likachev himself counted the silver coins with the name an Nasir weighed 46 56 grains silver coins with the name Mangu Khan from 24 to 30 grains and silver coins with the name of Arid Bird from 12 18 grains 22 It is difficult not to pay attention to the undoubted correlation of weight norms of coins found in an absolute relationship of multiples 1 coin with the name an Nasir 2 coins with the name Mangu 4 coins with the name Arid Bird Not easily understood A F Likachev does not notice this regularity considering the weights of the coins with the name an Nasir to be simply contradicting the weight norm of early Golden Horde coins Finally A S Saveliev and A F Likachev do not take into consideration such important circumstances as the silver crisis undermining the monetary relationships of the eastern countries in the XI XII centuries and continuing in the majority of countries until the Mongol invasion The existence of this crisis significantly weakens the argument used to date the Bulghar minting of coin at the end of the XII century Against the consideration of these points of view speaks the stratigraphical analysis of coins found with the name of an Nasir lid din Allah by the excavation of Bulghar All these coins are found only in the Golden Horde layers Lower horizontal deposits fully coincide with the lower horizontal deposits of obviously Juchi coins The time of their existence as is shown by their being found together with other Juchi coins almost continuously The very latest appearance of the combination of these coins is with the coins of Uzbeg With this in mind we have all the bases to attribute the coins with the name of an Nasir to the beginning of minting by the Golden Horde and joining them in one group with Juchi coins being minted in Bulghar with the names of the khans Mangu and Arid Bird 23 But by whom and when namely was begun minting in the Golden Horde X M Fren24 and Stanley Lane Poole25 reckoned the first Juchi coins for example those minted in Bulghar under the names of Khan Mangu and Arid Bird are summarily assigned by them to the time of the rule of Batu 1237 1256 and Baraka 1256 1266 The name of Mangu khan gives a definite chronological limit of 1251 1259 In this period concludes the reign of Batu and begins the rule of Baraka Resolving the question about this whom of these two khans began coinage at the mints requires the study of what type of first Juchi coins appearing as a Muslim type using the honored name a Muslim caliph and on copper coins a Muslim blessing If the appearance on coins of Muslim characteristics minted with the name of Ghenghis and Chagatai does not call forth bewilderment just as such coins were minted in old mints that were functioning right up to the time of the Mongol invasion then the Muslim appearance of the original Bulghar Golden Horde coins are able to exist only in connection with the conversion of a Golden Horde khan to Islam Eastern authors establish for us a whole series of information about the course of Islamization of the Golden Horde and they do not allow us to doubt that one of the main causes of Islamization was the support of Juchi for the development of trade the encouragement of which was not able to be begun without encouraging the merchant who was fundamentally Muslim Permit me to say that nowhere in the boundaries of the Mongol Empire did Muslim merchants receive such advantages and such acknowledgment as in the Golden Horde under Batu and his successor Baraka Al Juzchan who dies in the 60 s of the XIII century reports He Batu was a truly orthodox man and a friend of Muslim merchants under his protection the Muslim continued a free life In the extension of his kingdom the Islamic countries did not give him any trouble nor assign him any blame not even when becoming his subordinate 26 A similar panegyric was given by another Persian historian Juvain who died in the year 1283 Traders from various countries worked their various trades everything no matter what it was he took and for each thing gave good value in each case above its cost 27 Bringing together the reports they related about Batu as an active defender of the interests of Muslim merchants however for all this the minting of money with Muslim sayings should be regarded as a political trifle Necessarily the khan himself was a Muslim As is well known Batu himself did not convert to Islam but Baraka who continued the politics of his brother was a Muslim himself From the data of al Omar and al Calicashandi Baraka converted to Islam already in the 40 s of the XIII century that is long before his ascension to the throne 28 Ibn Haldin reports that Baraka spread Islam among all his own people began to build mosques and schools in al his own possessions drew near to himself scholars and lawgivers and became friends with them 29 The conversion of Baraka to Islam was provoked most of all by the political situation It undoubtedly speaks about the farsightedness of the khan The Golden Horde spread itself into a huge territory where the Muslim religion was ruling such as Khorezm and Bulghar parts of the lands of Butass where the commodity traders and merchants connected with the cities of Middle Asia were stable and constant The conversion to Islam in the Golden Horde is a fact of well known significance His special relationship with a sultan in Egypt necessarily put right in front of him a common enemy of Hulagu Iran The undoubted advantages of a pro Islamic policy was understood already then when Baraka was only an influential prince and not much counted as a contender for the throne since Batu had two sons appearing as his principle heirs The conversion of Baraka to Islam strove to increase his personal influence with Muslims in order to gain their support When in 1256 according to Russian chroniclers 1257 fortunate circumstances the death of both sons of Batu put in his hands the throne of the khans Baraka quickly concluded the political Islamization of the whole Golden Horde society A

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  • page16
    if Byzantine influence on images of Juchi coins then it would follow so much the more that one would expect the influence of Byzantine coinage on the monetary affairs of the Golden Horde Between Juchi and Byzantine coins there was never observed any kind of resemblance 16 The opinion of R R Fasmer about the Eastern origins of the two headed eagle on Juchi coins was wholly different from N P Likachev 17 Spurning the unfounded general theoretical premisses B V Zaikovski also makes a series of observations in regards to the dating of these widely distributed coins based on a formal analysis These observations should also be examined in this current article By the weight diameter and inscription features writes B V Zaikovski and also the main images by all these circumstance including the mark of value these coins can only be assigned to the rule of Khan Uzbeg 1313 1342 Namely on the coins of Uzbeg from 13 types of copper coins cataloged by Fren on 6 types were indicated the value of which besides the given types on 4 we have literally this inscriptino 16 pul denga until uzbeg the the exception of very rare examples of Batiya and Birdi existing with the name of the Most High Mongol Khan there were no copper coins after him on which any value was stated on the coins and this very type was noticeably avoided on the currency as the monetary affairs of the Golden Horde declined 18 Actually by weight and measure the copper coins with the two headed eagle go with dated copper coins of Uzbeg and this is the uniquely true observation of B V Zaikovsky However it does not decide the question of category it speaks only about providence Comparing the inscriptions used by coin minters manufactured at the time of Uzbek speaks not for but against the comparison of B V Zaikovsky For coins of the time of Uzbek especially for copper coins are characterized by the use of Cufic style of written letters fig 1 for coins of the time of Jani Beg minted at Sarai al Jedid are typically written in Naskhi script Examining the designation of value of the coins of Uzbeg also decides nothing just as B V Zaikovsky uses the argument which he himself recognizes still needs a foundation The unarguable conclusion about this is that the designated value of the copper coins exists exclusively in the mints of Uzbeg It follows that the mints of Uzbeg of some types of anonymous copper coins which are very widespread have only a relationship firstly to coins with the tamgha of the House of Batu highest date is from the time of Tokhta and secondly to coins with the two headed eagle Assertions about the extreme rarity of copper coins with the name of Mangu Timur Khan does not reflect the real situation of the material of earlier Juchi numismatics In this way the whole system of evidence presented by B V Zaikovsky is so helpless that it does not withstand the simple confrontation with important and well known numismatic material In the article B V Zaikovsky presents a short summary of coins collected by him in Tsarevski city Of 262 examples minted only four belong to Uzbeg copper and silver Sarai More than half 142 examples belong to the mintage of Jani Beg Coins with the depiction of the two headed eagle are represented here by 56 examples The statistics speak for themselves If one finds only 4 coins of Uzbeg but coins of Jani Beg number 142 then the 56 examples with the two headed eagle belong without any doubt to the mints of Jani Beg The coins with the two headed eagle can be dated to the time of Uzbeg even by A A Krotkov 19 who otherwise doesnt even argue his own point of view However he reports one important find which once again shows the bankruptcy of the Byzantine hypothesis of B V Zaikovsky and I N Borojin By the size and weight they are able to assign them to the time of Uzbeg Khan and not earlier than 737 AH underlined here and elsewhere by me S Yanina since on one coin from the collection of the Saratov Archeological Museum having the image of lion and sun worn away there is a counterstamp of a type of two headed eagle minted on a coin of 737 AH 20 Summarizing all these statements I am able to name the following basic reasons in favor of dating the coins with the image of a two headed eagle to the time of Jani Beg I 1343 1352 1 Coins with the name Uzbeg minted in Sarai al Jedid do not exist 2 The first coin type silver minted at Sarai al Jedid is dated 741 AH and minted with the name of Jani Beg 3 Copper coins with the depiction of the two headed eagle minted in Sarai al Jedid in 743 AH without showing any face value is extremely rare which allows us to see in them relics of the beginning stages of minting coins with the two headed eagle 4 Finds of coins with the two headed eagle dated 751 AH 21 determined the possible end date of this mintage Among the materials of the 1957 expedition appears some other interesting types A special note is made of a silver coin of Shadi Beg 807 AH minted in Bulghar No 144a U ntil this time silver coins minted in the XV century have not been found in bulghar Interesting also is the lyre like counterstamp No 150 VI Its inscription makes ti like a tamgha forming a basic stamp of some types of silver coins of Ulu Mohammed see figure 2 on page 220 The current publication continues the catalog of Juchi coins of the Kuibyshev expedition This determines the form of the documented material and the necessity of preserving the adopted order of the first

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