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  • York (UK) Coin Fair - Ancients.info - The Online Resource for Ancient Coins & Antiquities
    Coin Fair Attached Images York Coin Fair 2016 January lo lo res copy jpg 87 5 KB 9 views Lee Toone www hookmoor com leetoone View Public Profile Visit leetoone s homepage Find More Posts by leetoone Previous Thread Next Thread Thread Tools Show Printable Version Email this Page Display Modes Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode Posting Rules You may not post new threads You

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  • York (UK) Coin Fair - Ancients.info - The Online Resource for Ancient Coins & Antiquities
    Coin Fair Attached Images York Coin Fair 2016 January lo lo res copy jpg 87 5 KB 9 views Lee Toone www hookmoor com leetoone View Public Profile Visit leetoone s homepage Find More Posts by leetoone Previous Thread Next Thread Thread Tools Show Printable Version Email this Page Display Modes Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode Posting Rules You may not post new threads You

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  • Ancients.info - Active Threads
    of VCoins com and Ancients info See below to get your free site Aeqvitas Heather Howard Aeratvs William Peters Ancient Cash Dennis Rider Ancient Coin Club of Los Angeles Michael Connor Ancient Coin Collectors Guild Wayne Sayles Ancient Coins In Praise of the Celators Tom Buggey Ancient Greek Roman Coins Doug Smith Ancient Links Bill Puetz Ancient Numismatic Society of Washington DC Mike Mehalick Ancient Roman Greek Coins Warren Esty The Attic Ed Flinn Barry P Murphy Ancients info Barry Murphy Beast Coins Zach Beasley Books on Roman Republican Coins Andrew McCabe City Gates Ray Wilk Cleaning Ancient Coins Tony Jaworski Coins of Eremitus Harry Stewart Coins of Lexemt4 Tom Ross Constantine The Great Victor Clark Diadumenian Dr Malcolm Megaw Gordian III Michael Mihalka Gordian III and Roman Provincial coins Jerry Coddington The Home of Aurelian Tom Ross Illyrian Cows Calfs Gyula Petranyi Imitations of Roman Republican Denarii Phil Davis Islamic Coins Collection Fawzan Barrage Kevin s Coins Kevin Ingleston The Life Family and Coinage of Julia Domna Ernie Thompson Maridvnvm Martin Griffiths Medieval Coins Fawzan Barrage Mortown s Coins Alex Blake Davis Numis Coins and Coin Collecting Reid Goldsborough Numismopolis Di Hu The Parthian Empire Edward C D Hopkins Roman Numismatic Gallery Andreas Pangerl Romanian Coins Bogdan Costin Alexandru Pinzar Seleukids org Oliver Hoover Severus Alexander Kevin Beaulieu Trajan Sestertii Matt Sersch Yamini Dirhams of the Ghaznavids Howard Cole Coins of Heraclea Tony Bergantino Craig Cunningham Craig Cunningham Indian Coins Ballabh Garg Kim s Romans Kim Cupples If you would like a free site please contact us at Free Sites and let us know what your site will be about All free sites come with a professional site management console No commercial content or links to commercial sites other than VCoins are permitted on free sites Newest Download Articles

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  • Ancients.info - Articles - Coins - Comments on Corrosion of Ancient Coins
    modern mint For the purposes of local currency this did not matter a coin would then as now be accepted at its face value i e at the value for which it was issued by the state authorities in its home country regardless of its exact weight abroad if it was not treated as bullion its value would be determined by recognized rates of exchange in which the credit of the issuing authority played a part if we may judge from some ancient records The risks of loss of weight are especially notable in the Alexandrian series to which Mr Caley has drawn attention partly because the silver coins from that mint are so heavily alloyed but even more from the effect of the salts in Egyptian soil on some metals Under certain conditions copper coins buried in damp places in Egypt simply disintegrate a parcel of Ptolemaic copper half drachmas found at Abydos below Nile level showed the process in all stages they came to me looking like lumps of greenish sand and while one or two had preserved their form fairly well only with a coat of corrosion which could be split off most broke up into irregular pieces and some were nothing but green sand throughout in a lump about double the size of the original coin A mixed lot of coins from Naucratis proved equally hopeless for cleaning silver and bronze alike all fell to pieces when treated except one Athenian tetradrachm I have cleaned several thousands of Alexandrian tetradrachms of the Roman period by electrolysis from hoards rubbish mounds and casual finds and while those which had been buried in dry sand showed no reason to suspect loss of weight many from the damper sites were caked with corrosion products when these were removed the

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  • Ancients.info - Articles - Coins - On the Occurrence of Abnormally Low Weight and Specific Gravity in Ancient Coins
    The explanation for both the abnormally low eight and the abnormally low specific gravity observed in the coin is thus obvious for the metal of which it was composed was for the most part spongy and porous in other words full of minute cavities After examining this coin and obtaining the facts above given I recalled that I had in my own collection a late Ptolemaic tetradrachm 2 that had always appeared to be to be exceptionally light in weight though fully of normal size The actual weight was now found to be only 7 98 grams A careful determination of the specific gravity of this coin gave the result 5 66 which is close to that of the coin submitted by Mr Stein though actually even a little lower This coin had also been cleaned Examination of the metal showed that it had the same sort of extensive spongy structure The question that now remains to be answered is this Was the spongy structure observed in these two coins produced at the time of minting or was it a subsequent development Aside from the small likelihood that coins of such low weight would have been accepted in circulation there is the strong probability on technical grounds that the spongy structure was a subsequent development Is is not generally realized how deep the processes of corrosion often extend into the metal of ancient coins of billon or bronze that have been buried in the earth for centuries Though such coins may have only a very thin patina or layer of corrosion products visible on their surface and thus appear to have been but little affected the corrosion may in fact extend deep into the metal This internal corrosion always tends to occur in the boundaries between the grains of crystals of the metal and frequently the metal of an ancient coin or other metal object is so affected by what is known technically as intergranular corrosion that the actual metal that remains is all or nearly all in the form of numerous isolated grains or crystals wholly surrounded by corrosion products 3 When a coin extensively corroded in this way is cleaned chemically with solvents these solvents dissolve out the intergranular corrosion products to a greater or less degree depending upon the nature of the solvent and the duration of treatment If the solvent is active and the time extended nearly all the corrosion products may be dissolved out thus leaving the whole coin in a spongy condition The action is similar when electrolytic methods of cleaning are used except that some of the intergranular corrosion products will be reduced to new metal that will in part be plated back on the uncorroded metal in the coin However the final result is similar for the cleaned coin will seldom be composed of compact metal It will be remembered that both the coin submitted by Mr Stein and the one in my own collection had been cleaned The methods of cleaning

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  • Ancients.info - Articles - Fakes & Forgeries - Hoard coinage deviates from traditional style
    mark of distinction It appears as the dominant element on several issues and also as a mint mark on others The helmet itself may have represented a cult like militarism with deep social implications see Kevin Cheek s article about helmets on coins The Celator November 1989 Although the helmet depicted on the Black Sea Hoard diobols is similar in composition to helmets found on pre hoard coins the manner of representation or style is quite different The helmet portrayed is of a classic Corinthian type with a lateral crest This type of helmet was made from a single sheet of bronze and formed by pounding over a stake The lines were typically straight and simple see fig 1 While some of these helmets were decorated with crests and sculptural or engraved scenes the majority were plain The lateral crest is less commonly seen than its front to back counterpart however it was employed as a helmet ornamentation at about this same time by Spartan soldiers see fig 2 A review of pre hoard Mesembria diobols from a wide variety of illustrated sources including major collections in museums confirms certain commonalities within the series 1 a horsehair tail hangs from the crest of which it is an extension on each side of the helmet 2 the eye opening cutouts are clearly recessed from the flat surface plane of the forehead area 3 the nose protection plate is elevated from the flat surface plane of the forehead area and is a continuation of that flat surface 4 the angular cheek protectors are flat and linear that is unmodelled 5 the overall appearance is unemotional and rather geometric see fig 3 Examination of seven Mesembria hoard specimens all from different dies confirms that they too have commonalities 1 the horsehair tail is not in any case tied to the crest but rather eminates mysteriously from the side of the helmet 2 the eye openings are accentuated by using eyebrows and eyelids of a human like form which vary in size and shape so as to give each of the hoard specimens a facial character of its own 3 The nose protection plate is in each case rendered not as a flat plate extending downward from the forehead area but rather as a nose in itself The appendage clearly originates between the eye openings and the nose flares toward the nostrils often widening from the bridge to the base 4 the cheek protectors are modelled with high and low relief areas which give the illusion of cheek bones 5 the overall appearance of Mesembria hoard coins is that of a stylized human face complete with emotions rather than that of a lifeless piece of armor see fig 4 Comparisons of hoard coins with pre hoard specimens from Apollonia Pontica see fig 5 are somewhat more difficult due to the scarcity of the latter A few general conclusions however seem justifiable Pre hoard examples tend to be much less sculptural and less animated For

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  • Ancients.info - Articles - Coins - Coin motifs and civic pride
    some remain as powerful as the Roman SPQR These civic icons were often used on coins because the very nature of coinage required the backing and prestige of its issuing authority In the case of Athens the icon was Athena s wise and dependable owl Places that figured prominently in important myths often chose related images like Hercules at Thasos or Pegasos at Corinth Other cities chose to herald their civic pride with commercial icons The famous amphorae of Chios for example adorned many of that island city s coins The icons of these places like the SPQR of Rome did not appear solely on coinage They were more deeply imbedded images that may be seen on a variety of surviving artifacts from the ancient world One of the most closely related to coinage is the amphora stamp Producers of pottery and particularly amphorae often used coins as a stamp of identification and presumably of quality sort of like the Levi label on today s jeans They must also have engraved their own punches with coin motifs because some stamps bear clearly recognizable coin images yet lack essential details Of course there was no way of stopping an industrious entrepeneur from stamping his own amphorae with a coin from Thasos Rhodes or Knidos How many Levi jeans are made in China While numismatists have produced sylloges for coins SNG the vase lovers of the world have recorded the ex tant pottery in Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum CVA Any casual perusal of the volumes there are a great many will reveal stamped pottery of one form or another There is actually quite a bit of published material about these stamped vases Virginia Grace being one of the most published experts in this field see V R Grace Stamped Amphora Handles found in

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  • Ancients.info - Articles - Coins - Did ancient celators use magnifying lenses?
    produced Approximately 50 lens shaped crystals were discovered by Heinrich Schliemann at Troy one of which was over two inches in diameter 5 Most of these were perforated in the center leading contemporary authorities to conclude they were ornaments and not lenses However a center perforation would allow an ideal means of carrying the lens and would not hinder its ability to kindle a fire Another early lens has been dated to ca 900 700 B C and was discovered in Nimrud in 1853 This lens is plano convex and 35x41 mm across and 6 mm at its thickest This lens was the subject of an article in the British Journal of Physiological Optics in 1930 Vol IV No 1 6 Perhaps the most important discovery was a Roman period magnifying lens discovered in 1854 in the House of the Engraver on the Stabian Way in Pompeii It is plano convex with a corroded opaque surface and is in the gem collection at the National Museum in Naples The fact that such a lens was discovered in the shop of an ancient engraver is highly significant 7 Two more lenses were discovered in the house of an artist in Tanis Egypt by Flinders Petrie He dated the destruction of the house to AD 174 Again both lenses are plano convex and reside at the British Museum They are about 2 1 2 inches in diameter and have a focal length of about 3 1 2 inches 8 I personally feel it is most unrealistic to assume that during the first millennium BC no one would have looked through a lens or polished gem at a small object and not noticed its magnifying properties Rather it is far more reasonable to assume that the practical use of such an image magnifier was simply not generally appreciated or written about The total number of ancient lenses in existence today is not known although they must number in the hundreds Among the museums possessing ancient lenses which are recognized as such are the British Museum London Archaeological Museum Herakleion 23 lenses on display and more in storage National Museum Naples Candia Museum Crete Lavigerie Museum Carthage Archaeological Museum Istanbul There are two explanations for the precision obtained by ancient engravers when producing extremely small details first that the work was done with the unaided but myopic eye and second that simple magnifying lenses were used Since there is no doubt that lenses existed in the late Greek and Roman worlds the only question concerns their possible use as magnifiers Pliny the Roman historian mentions that gem engravers complained of considerable eye strain 9 This should not argue against the use of magnifying lenses but possibly suggest that the use of such lenses was not universal in ancient times or that imperfect lenses created eye strain ed Even more challenging than die engraving is the Roman art of gold glass portrait medallions In this art a portrait would be incised on gold leaf and

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